Physical growth of preterm girls with visual impairment

Wioleta Umławska 1
  • 1 Department of Anthropology, University of Wroclaw, Kuźnicza 35, 50-138 Wroclaw, Poland

Physical growth of preterm girls with visual impairment

The aim of this study was to estimate pubertal age and to assess the level of physical development of preterm girls with defective vision. The study material - anthropometric data (body height and weight, BMI) and information on the age of menarche were collected from 155 subjects with defective vision (partially sighted and blind). Median age at menarche was estimated by probit analysis. The girls, ranging in age from 7-18 years, attended Centers for Blind and Partially Sighted Children in Wroclaw and Cracow (Poland). 22% of the subjects were prematurely born, were born with low birth mass and their sight defect diagnosed as retinopathy due to prematurity (ROP). The girls with ophthalmic impairments were shorter and lighter than their age peers from the reference data. Blind girls reached pubertal age 2 months earlier than the partially sighted (Me=13.31 and Me=13.44) and, the preterm subjects entered puberty 6 months earlier than the full-term girls, irrespective of degree of defect (Me=12.93 and Me=13.42, respectively). The results suggest that earlier puberty is associated with visual impairment. The results show also that irrespective of the degree of defect, preterm girls reach menarche significantly earlier than those who were full-term. It seems possible that mechanisms responsible for earlier puberty in the preterm subjects and with low body mass play an important a role in sexual maturation in girls with sight dysfunction. There appears to be a need to pursue further studies in this sphere.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adair L., 2001, Size at birth predicts age at menarche, Pediatrics., 107, e59.

  • Barker D.J.P., 1999, Early growth and cardiovascular disease, Arch. Dis. Child., 80, 305-310.

  • Barker D.J.P., 2002, Fetal programming of coronary heart disease, Trends. Endocrinol. Metab., 13, 364-368.

  • Buday J., 1981, Age at menarche in girls with sensory deprivation, Acta Med. Auxol., 13, 131-139.

  • Buday J, I. Kaposi, 1995, Body development and physique of visually impaired children. Proceeedings of the 7th Tartu International Anthropological Conference, 29 May - 2 June, Tartu; pp. 36-46.

  • Cutfield W.S., F.A. Regan, W.E. Jackson, C.A. Jefferies, E.W. Robinson, M. Harris, P.L. Hofman, 2004, The endocrine consequences for very low birth weight premature infants, Growth. Horm. IGF. Res., 14, S130-S135.

  • Hales C.N., D.J.P. Barker, 1992, Type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: The thrifty phenotype hypothesis, Diabetologia., 35, 595-601.

  • Hofman P.l., F. Regan, M. Harris, E. Robinson, W. Jackson, W.S. Cutfield, 2004, The metabolic consequences of prematurity, Growth. Horm. IGF Res., 14, S136-S139.

  • Hokken-Koèlega A., M.A. de Ridder, R.J. Lemmen, H. Den Hartog, S.W. De Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.L. Drop, 1995, Children born small for gestational age: Do they catch up? Pediatr. Res., 38, 267-271.

  • Hokken-Koèlega A., 2002, Timing of puberty and the fetal growth, Best. Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 16, 65-71.

  • Ibanez L., N. Potau, M.V. Marcos, F. de Zegher, 1999, Exaggerated adrenarche and hyperinsulinizm in adolescent girls born small for gestational age, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 84, 4739-4741.

  • Ibanez L., A. Ferrer, M.V. Marcos, F.R. Hierro, F. de Zegher, 2000a, Early puberty: Rapid progression and reduced final height in girls with low birth weight, Pediatrics., 106, e72.

  • Ibanez L, N. Potau, G. Enriquez, F. de Zegher, 2000b, Reduced uterine and ovarian size in adolescent girls born small for gestational age, Pediatr. Res., 47, 575-577.

  • Ibanez L., N. Potau, A. Ferrer, F. Rodriguez-Hierro, M.V. Marcos, F. de Zegher, 2002, Reduced ovarian rate in adolescent girls born small for gestational age, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 87, 3391-3393.

  • Jaquet D., D. Collin, C. Lévy-Marchal, P. Czernichow, 2004, Adult height distribution in subjects born small for gestational age, Horm. Res., 62, 92-96.

  • Kozieł S., E.A. Jankowska, 2002, Effect of low versus normal birth weight on menarche in 14-year-old Polish girls, J. Paediatr. Child. Health., 38, 268-271.

  • Lévy-Marchal C., D. Jaquet, P. Czernichow, 2004, Long-term metabolic consequences of being born small for gestational age, Semin. Neonatol., 89, 69-74.

  • Lucas A., M.S. Fewtrell, T.J. Cole, 1999, Fetal origins of adult disease-the hypothesis revisited, Br. Med. J., 319, 245-249.

  • Łuczak E., 1992, Wybrane uwarunkowania rozwoju somatycznego uczniów w wieku 7-19 lat z wadą wzroku, Biologia Populacji Ludzkich Współczesnych i Pradziejowych Słupsk 241-250.

  • Malina R.M., C. Chumlea, 1977, Age at menarche in deaf girls, Ann. Hum. Biol., 4, 485-488.

  • Martin R., K. Saller, 1957-1959, Lehrbuch der Anthropologie, G. Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

  • O'Connor M.T., B.R. Vohr, R. Tucker, W. Cashore, 2003, Is retinopathy of prematurity increasing among infants less than 1250 g birth weight? J. Perinatol., 23, 673-678.

  • Ozanne S.E., C.N. Hales, 2002, Early programming of glucose-insulin metabolism, Trends Endocrinol. Metab., 13, 368-372.

  • Palczewska I., Z. Niedźwiedzka, 2001, Wskaźniki rozwoju somatycznego dzieci i młodzieży warszawskiej, Med. W. Rozwoj., 5, 19-55.

  • Persson I., F. Ahlesson, U. Ewald, 1999, Influence of perinatal factors on the onset of puberty in boys and girls: Implications for interpretation on link with risk of long term diseases, Am. J. Epidemiol., 150, 747-755.

  • Rapaport R., 2004, Growth and growth hormone in children born small for gestational age, Growth. Horm. IGF. Res., 14, S3-S6.

  • Prost M., 1998, Problemy okulistyki dziecięcej, Wydawnictwo Lekarskie PZWL, Warszawa.

  • Smith L.E.H., 2003, Pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity, Semin. Neonatol., 8, 469-473.

  • Umławska W., 2000, Age of menarche in girls with sight organ diseases, Prz. Antropol.-Anthropol. Rev., 63, 85-93.

  • Umławska W., 2006, Wiek pierwszej miesiączki dziewcząt ze schorzeniami narządów zmysłów, Med. W. Rozwoj., 10, 903-911.

  • Zacharias L., R.J. Wurtman, 1964, Blindness: Its relation to age of menarche, Science, 144, 1154-1155.


Journal + Issues