Investigating ground vibration to calculate the permissible charge weight for blasting operations of Gotvand-Olya dam underground structures / Badania drgań gruntu w celu określenia dopuszczalnego ciężaru ładunku wybuchowego przy pracach strzałowych w podziemnych elementach tamy w Gotvand-Olya

Open access

Abstract

Ground vibration, air vibration, fly rock, undesirable displacement and fragmentation are some inevitable side effects of blasting operations that can cause serious damage to the surrounding environment. Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) is the main criterion in the assessment of the amount of damage caused by ground vibration. There are different standards for the determination of the safe level of the PPV. To calculate the permissible amount of the explosive to control the damage to the underground structures of Gotvand Olya dam, use was made of sixteen 3-component (totally 48) records generated from 4 blasts. These operations were recorded in 3 directions (radial, transverse and vertical) by four PG-2002 seismographs having GS-11D 3-component seismometers and the records were analyzed with the help of the DADISP software. To predict the PPV, use was made of the scaled distance and the Simulated Annealing (SA) hybrid methods. Using the scaled distance resulted in a relation for the prediction of the PPV; the precision of the relation was then increased to 0.94 with the help of the SA hybrid method. Relying on the high correlation of this relation and considering a minimum distance of 56.2 m to the center of the blast site and a permissible PPV of 178 mm/s (for a 2-day old concrete), the maximum charge weight per delay came out to be 212 Kg.

Drgania gruntu, rozchodzenie się drgań w powietrzu, rozrzut skał, ich niepożądane przemieszczenia i rozdrobnienie to nieuchronne skutki prowadzenia prac strzałowych, które spowodować mogą poważne spustoszenie w środowisku naturalnym. Maksymalna prędkość drgań cząstek (PPV) to główne kryterium przy ocenie szkód spowodowanych przez drgania podłoża. Istnieje wiele norm określających bezpieczne poziomy prędkości drgań cząstek (PPV). Obliczenie dopuszczalnej wielkości ładunku wybuchowego w taki sposób, by zapobiegać uszkodzeniom podziemnych elementów tamy Gotvand Olya opiera się na wykorzystaniu 16 3-elementowych zestawów danych zarejestrowanych w trakcie 4 wybuchów. Procedura rejestracji obejmuje zapisy drgań w 3 kierunkach (promieniowe, poprzeczne i pionowe) zarejestrowane przez 4 sejsmografy wyposażone w sejsmometry GS-11D, zaś same zapisy analizowano przy wykorzystaniu oprogramowania DADISP. Przewidywanie prędkości drgań cząstek odbywa się w oparciu o skalowanie odległości oraz metody hybrydowe Simulated Annealing (S.A.). W wyniku skalowania odległości otrzymujemy wzorów na prędkość drgań cząstek, przy wykorzystaniu metod hybrydowych dokładność obliczeń wzrasta do 0.94. Wykorzystując wysoki stopień korelacji wynikający ze wzoru, uwzględniając minimalną odległość 56.2 m od epicentrum wybuchu oraz dozwolony poziom prędkości drgań cząstek gruntu 178 mm/s (dla dwudniowego betonu), otrzymujemy maksymalną wielkość ładunku na pojedynczy wystrzał na poziomie 212 Kg.

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