Real –time dispatching modelling for trucks with different capacities in open pit mines / Modelowanie w czasie rzeczywistym przewozów ciężarówek o różnej ładowności w kopalni odkrywkowej

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Application of fully automated systems for truck dispatching plays a major role in decreasing the transportation costs which often represent the majority of costs spent on open pit mining. Consequently, the application of a truck dispatching system has become fundamentally important in most of the world’s open pit mines. Recent experiences indicate that by decreasing a truck’s travelling time and the associated waiting time of its associated shovel then due to the application of a truck dispatching system the rate of production will be considerably improved. Computer-based truck dispatching systems using algorithms, advanced and accurate software are examples of these innovations. Developing an algorithm of a computer- based program appropriated to a specific mine’s conditions is considered as one of the most important activities in connection with computer-based dispatching in open pit mines. In this paper the changing trend of programming and dispatching control algorithms and automation conditions will be discussed. Furthermore, since the transportation fleet of most mines use trucks with different capacities, innovative methods, operational optimisation techniques and the best possible methods for developing the required algorithm for real-time dispatching are selected by conducting research on mathematical-based planning methods. Finally, a real-time dispatching model compatible with the requirement of trucks with different capacities is developed by using two techniques of flow networks and integer programming.


Zastosowanie w pełni zautomatyzowanych systemów dysponowania przewozami ciężarówek w poważny sposób przyczynia się do zmniejszenia kosztów transportu, które częstokroć mają poważny udział w kosztach funkcjonowania kopalni odkrywkowych. Dlatego też zastosowanie systemu dysponowania transportem ma kluczowe znaczenie w kopalniach odkrywkowych na świecie. Niedawne doświadczenia wskazują, że poprzez zmniejszenie czasu przejazdu ciężarówek oraz zmniejszenie czasu oczekiwania dzięki zastosowaniu systemu dysponowania przewozami możliwe jest znaczne podniesienie poziomu produkcji. Wspomagany komputerowo system dysponowania przewozami wykorzystujący odpowiednie algorytmy a także zaawansowane oprogramowanie stanowią przykłady nowoczesnych rozwiązań w tej dziedzinie. Opracowanie algorytmu komputerowego dostosowanego do konkretnych warunków panujących w danej kopalni odkrywkowej jest jedną z kluczowych czynności dla uruchomienia komputerowego systemu dysponowania przewozami ciężarówek w kopalni. W artykule przedstawiono zmieniające się trendy w zakresie programowania, algorytmów sterowania przewozami i automatyzacji. Ponadto, ponieważ większość kopalni odkrywkowych wykorzystuje ciężarówki o różnej ładowności, wybrano najlepsze i najnowocześniejsze metody i techniki optymalizacji oraz najskuteczniejsze metody opracowywania algorytmów wspomagających systemy dysponowania przejazdami ciężarówek w czasie rzeczywistym, wybrano je w oparciu o metody planowania wykorzystujące aparat matematyczny. W części końcowej zaprezentowano model dysponowania przewozami w czasie rzeczywistym kompatybilny z wymogiem zastosowania ciężarówek o różnej ładowności, opracowany w oparciu o metody sieci przepływowych i programowania binarnego.

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