The Incidence and Risk Factors of Nosocomial Infections in ICU

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Introduction: The increased incidence of nosocomial infections in intensive care units, with frequent occurrence of multiresistant pathogens increase mortality and often raises therapeutic problems.

Objectives: to assess the incidence of nosocomial infections, and risk factors.

Methods: The study includes 125 patients hospitalized in the Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intesive Care in the Emergency County Hospital and Cardiovascular Surgery Targu Mures. The patients were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 99), patients who did not develop infections during hospitalization in the ICU and the group with infection (n = 26).

Results: The incidence of nosocomial infections in our intensive care unit was 19.1%, the most common pathogen being Acinetobacter baumanii. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding demographic data, the most important risk factor was chronic alcohol consumption. SAPS II. and SOFA scores showed higher values in the group with infection on the day of admission. This group showed lower levels of arterial blood oxygen (Horowitz index), lower sodium level, and higher number of platelets compared to the control group. The mortality in the group with infection was 47.65% compared to the control.

Conclusions: Nosocomial infections in critically ill patients are associated with hypoxemia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia and a bad outcome.

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