The Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Bainitic Steel Used for Frogs in Railway Crossovers

Open access


This work deals with the effect of heat treatment on a microstructure and mechanical properties of a selected cast steel assigned as a material used for frogs in railway crossovers. Materials used nowadays in the railway industry for frogs e.g. Hadfield cast steel (GX120Mn13) or wrougth pearlitic steel (eg. R260) do not fulfil all exploitation requirements indicated in the UIC (International Union of Railways) Decision No. 1692/96 in terms of train speed that should be reached on railways. One of the possible solution is using a cast steel with bainitic or bainitic-martensitic microstructure that allows to gain high strength properties the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of 1400 MPa, the tensile yield strength (TYS) of 900 MPa and the hardness of up to 400 BHN. The tested material is considered as an alternative to Hadfield cast steel that is currently used for railway frogs.

Results of an experimental analysis of the effect of conducted heat treatment on a microstructure, the volume fraction of retained austenite and mechanical properties of bainitic steel, are shown in this paper. It was found that, the heat treatment leads to a stabilization of retained austenite in grain boundaries area of the primary austenite. Additionally, the heat treatment according to the variant #3 results with an almost 3-times higher impact toughness to that exhibited by material subjected to the other treatments.

[1] M. Hotzman, I. Dlouhy, J. Zboril, Hutnicke Listy 58, 8-20 (2003).

[2] D. Korab, Railway Review 131, 89-92 (2000).

[3] J. Pacyna, J. Krawczyk, Metallurgy and Foundry Engineering 27 (2), 229-235 (2001).

[4] H.A. Aglan, Z.Y. Liu, M.F. Hassan, M. Fateh, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 151, 268-274 (2004).

[5] J. Pacyna, The first Polish bainitic rails, Polish Metallurgy in years 2002-2006, Committee of Metallurgy of The Polish Academy of Science, 651-656 (2006).

[6] F.C. Robles Hernández, N.G. Demas, D.D. Davis, A.A. Polycarpou, L. Maal, Wear 263, 766-772 (2007).

[7] K.M. Lee, A.A. Polycarpou, Wear 259, 391-399 (2005).

[8] P. Clayton, Wear 191, 170-183 (1996).

[9] J. Pacyna, P. Bała, ІV Nationwide Scientific – Technical Conference „Welding railways – the quality, reliability, safety” Bochnia (2010).

[10] J. Pacyna, T. Skrzypek, Archives of Foundry Engineering 8, 111-115 (2008).

[11] R.K. Steele, Report of the Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, D.C. (2002).

[12] F.C. Zhang, C.L. Zheng, B. Lv, T.S. Wang, M. Li, M. Zhang, Engineering Failure Analysis 16, 1461-1467 (2009).

[13] D.R. Pendelton, K. Compton, E.G. Jones, Railway Gazette International, 3 (1986).

[14] M.R. Green, W.M. Rainforth, M.F. Frolish, J.H. Beynon, Wear 1-6, 756-765 (2007).

[15] S. Parzych, E. Tasak, Archives of Foundry Engineering 10, 113-116 (2010).

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

The Journal of Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science and Commitee on Metallurgy of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.571
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.776

CiteScore 2016: 0.85

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.347
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.740


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 430 315 17
PDF Downloads 181 159 9