Recycling of Gallium from End-of-Life Light Emitting Diodes

Open access

Abstract

Nowadays Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are widely utilized. They are applied as backlighting in Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) and TV sets or as lighting equipments in homes, cars, instruments and street-lightning. End of life equipments are containing more and more LEDs. The recovery of valuable materials – such as Ga, Au, Cu etc. – from the LEDs is essential for the creating the circular economy. First task is the development of a proper recycling technology. Most of the researchers propose fully chemical or thermal-chemical pathway for the recycling of LEDs.

In the meantime our approach based on the thorough investigation of the structure and composition of LEDs, and shown in this paper, is the combination of mechanical and chemical techniques in order to recover more valuable products, as well as to facilitate the mass transfer. Our laboratory scale experiments are introduced, the final aim of which is Ga recovery in accordance with our above approach. It was experimentally proved that the LED chips contain Ga and can be recovered by mechanical processes along with copper-product. Ga is presented on the surface of the chips in GaN form. Mechano-chemical activation in high energy density stirred medium mill and the following acidic leaching resulted in the enrichment of 99.52% of gallium in the pregnant solution.

[1] M. Frenzel, M.P. Ketris, T. Seifert, J. Gutzmer, On the current and future availability of gallium, Resources Policy 47, 38-50 (2016).

[2] B.W. Jaskula, Gallium USGS Mineral Commodity Summaries January, 58-59 (2015).

[3] European Commission. Report on Critical Raw Materials for the EU. Report of the Ad-Hoc Working Group on Defining Critical Materials (2014). EU, Brussels.

[4] L. Zhan, F. Xia, Q. Ye, X. Xiang, B. Xie, Novel recycle technology for recovering rare metals (Ga, In) from waste light-emitting diodes, Journal of Hazardous Materials 299, 388-394 (2015).

[5] S. Nagy, I. Pólya, N. Zajzon, Gallium in the light emission diodes in Földessy J. (editor) Basic research of the strategic raw materials in Hungary CriticEL Monography series 10, 96-99 (2014), ISSN: 2064-3195 ISBN: 978-615-80073-5-1.

[6] W.T. Chen, L.C. Tsai, F.C. Tsa, C.M. Shu, Recovery of gallium and arsenic from gallium arsenide waste in the electronics industry, Clean-Soil Air Water 40, 531-537 (2012).

[7] I.M. Ahmed, Y.A. El-Nadi, N.E. El-Hefny, Extraction of gallium (III) from hydrochloric acid by Cyanex 923 and Cyanex 925, Hydrometallurgy 131, 24-28 (2013).

[8] H. Filik, R.A. Apak, Chelating ion exchanger for gallium recovery from alkaline solution using 5-palmitoyl-8-hydroxyquinoline immobilized on a nonpolar adsorbent, Sep. Sci. Technol. 33, 1123-1134 (1998).

[9] W.L. Chou, C.T. Wang, K.C. Yang, Y.H. Huang, Removal of gallium (III) ions from acidic aqueous solution by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction in the green separation process, J. Hazard. Mater. 160, 6-12 (2008).

[10] B. Swain, C. Mishra, L. Kang, K.-S. Park, C.G. Lee, H.S. Hong, J.-J. Park, Recycling of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition waste of GaN based power device and LED industry by acidic leaching: Process optimization and kinetics study, Journal of Power Sources 281, 265-271 (2015).

[11] B. Swain, C. Mishra, L. Kang, K.-S. Park, C.G. Lee, H.S. Hong, Recycling process for recovery of gallium from GaN an e-waste of LED industry through ball milling, annealing and leaching, Environmental Research 138, 401-408. (2015).

[12] I. Pólya, MSc Thesis Super-visor: Dr. Sándor Nagy Senior Lecturer University of Miskolc, Hungary, 2015.

[13] D. Zhuan, J.H. Edgar, Mater. Sci. Eng. R. Rep. 48 (1), 1-46 (2005).

[14] B. Swain, C. Mishra, K.-S. Park, C.G. Lee, Recycling of GaN a Refractory eWaste Material: Understanding the Chemical Thermodynamics, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol. 13 (2), 280-288 (2016).

[15 L. Bokányi, Innovative mineral processing techniques in waste recycling In: Üner Ipekoglu, Vedat Arslan, Sezai Sen (ed.) Proceedings of the 14th International Mineral Processing Symposium Kusadasi Turkey, 2014.10.15-2014.10.17. Izmir: Turkish Mining Development Foundation, 2014. pp. inv55-inv62. (ISBN:978-975-441-436-3).

[16] P. Balaž, Mechanochemistry in Nanoscience and Mineral Engineering, Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2008.

[17] L. Bokányi, T. Varga, V. Mádai-Üveges, J. Paulovics, Bioprocessing research in Institute of Raw Materials Preparation and Environmental Processing, University of Miskolc In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Biotechnology and Metals, Kosice, Slovakia, 2011.09.22-2011.09.23. pp. 5-8.

[18] G. Mucsi, Á. Szenczi, Z. Molnár, J. Lakatos, Structural formation and leaching behaviour of mechanically activated lignite fly ash based geopolymer, J. of Envir. Eng. and Landscape Management 24 (1), 48-59 (2016).

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

The Journal of Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science and Commitee on Metallurgy of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.571
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.776

CiteScore 2016: 0.85

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.347
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.740

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 370 370 56
PDF Downloads 97 97 14