Whisker-Like Formations in Sn-3.0Ag-Pb Alloys

Open access


In this study, different types of whisker-like formations of Sn-3.0Ag based alloy were presented. In the experimental process the amount of Pb element was changed between 1000 and 2000 ppm, and the furnace atmosphere and cooling rate were also modified. The novelty of this work was that whisker-like formations in macro scale size were experienced after an exothermic reaction. The whiskers of larger sizes than general provided opportunities to investigate the microstructure and the concentration nearby the whiskers. In addition, the whisker-like formations from Sn-Ag based bulk material did not only consist of pure tin but tin and silver phases. The whisker-like growth appeared in several forms including hillock, spire and nodule shaped formations in accordance with parameters. It was observed that the compound phases were clustered in many cases mainly at hillocks.

[1] K. Zeng, K.N. Tu, Mater. Sci. and Eng. R38, 55-105 (2002).

[2] J. Smetana, Electr. Pack. Manuf. 30/1, 11-22 (2007).

[3] D. Shangguan, Lead-Free Solder Interconnect Reliability, ASM International 2005.

[4] T. Kakeshita, K. Shimizu, R. Kawanaka, T. Hasegawa, J. Mater. Sci. 17/9, 2560-2566 (1982).

[5] A. Skwarek, K. Witek, J. Ratajczak, Microel. Reliab. 49/6, 569-572 (2009).

[6] A. Baated, K. Hamasaki, S.S. Kim, K-S. Kim, K. Suganuma, J. Electr. Mater. 40/11, 2278-2289 (2009).

[7] K.J. Puttlitz, K.A. Stalter, Handbook of Lead-Free Solder Technology for Microelectronic Assemblies, New York 2004.

[8] A. Sycheva, A.L. Radanyi, Z. Gácsi, Mater. Sci. Forum, 790-791, 271-276 (2014).

[9] T. Shibutani, Q. Yu, M. Shiratori, M.G. Pecht, Microel. Reliab. 48, 1033-1039 (2008).

[10] A.L. Radanyi, A. Sycheva, Z. Gácsi, Arch. of Met. and Mater. 60/2, 1341-134 (2015).

[11] M. Judd, K. Brindley, Soldering in Electronic Assembly, Oxford 1999.

[12] Y. Nakadaira, S. Jeong, J. Shim, J. Seo, S. Min, T. Cho, S. Kang, S. Oh, Microel. Reliab. 47, 1928-1949 (2007).

[13] K.S. Kim, S.H. Huh, K. Suganuma, Mater. Sci. and Eng. A333, 106-114 (2002).

[14] J. Gong, C. Liu, P.P. Conway, V.V. Silberscmidt, Scrip. Mater. 61, 682-685 (2009).

[15] H-T. Lee, Y-F. Chen, J. Alloys and Comp. 509, 2510-2517 (2011).

[16] Q. Zhu, M. Sheng, L. Luo, Sold. and Surf. M. Tech. 12/2, 19-23 (2000).

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

The Journal of Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science and Commitee on Metallurgy of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.571
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.776

CiteScore 2016: 0.85

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.347
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.740


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 168 130 7
PDF Downloads 73 67 5