Assessment of the Harmfulness of Moulding Sands with Alkyd Resin Subjected to the High Temperature Influence

Open access

Abstract

Out of moulding sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. These resins in their initial state these resins are not very dangerous for people and for the environment, thus under an influence of high temperatures they generate very harmful products, being the result of their thermal decomposition. Depending on the kind of the applied resin, under an influence of a temperature such compounds as: furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, phenol, BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), and also polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be formed and released.

The aim of the study was the development of the method, selection of analytical methods and the determination of optimal conditions of formation compounds from the BTEX and PAHs group. Investigations were carried out in the specially designed set up for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in a temperature range: 500 – 1 300°C at the laboratory scale. The object for testing was alkyd resin applied as a binding material for moulding sands. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of compounds were performed by means of the gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

[1] C.D.N Humfrey, L.S. Levy, S.P. Faux, Food and Chemical Toxicology 34, 1103-1111 (1996).

[2] M.G. Ribeiro, W.R.P. Filho, Journal of Hazardous Materials A136, 432-437 (2006).

[3] P. Scarbel, C.E. Bats, J. Griffin, AFS Transactions 114, 435-445 (2006).

[4] J. Faber, K. Perszewska, M. Żmudzińska, M. Latała-Holtzer. Archives of Foundry Engineering 10, 39-42 (2010) (in Polish).

[5] M.T. Teles, C. Delerue-Matos, M. Alvim-Ferraz, Analytica Chimica Acta 537, 47-51 (2005).

[6] M. Holtzer, D. Kwaśniewska-Królikowska, A. Bobrowski, R. Dańko, B. Grabowska, S. Żymankowska-Kumon, W. Solarski, Przegląd Odlewnictwa 3-4,124-132 (2012) (in Polish).

[7] M. Kubecki, M. Holtzer, B. Grabowska, A. Bobrowski, Archives of Foundry Engineering 11, 125-130 (2011).

[8] V.S LaFay, G. Crandell, J. Schifo, AFS Transcations 115, 977-989 (2007).

[9] S. Ji, L. Wan, Z. Fan, Water, Air and Soil Pollution 132, 347-364 (2001).

[10] M. Holtzer, R. Dańko, A. Kmita Water, Air and Soil Pollution 227 (1), 12-16 (2016).

[11] Y. Wang, F.S. Cannon, X. Li, Environmental Science and Technology 45, 8529–8535 (2011).

[12] M. Holtzer, Archives of Foundry 2 (3), 50-56 (2002) (in Polish).

[13] A. Wolff, T. Steinhäuser, Foundry Trade Journal 179, 57 (2005).

[14] M. Patterson, J. Thiel, Foundry Mangement &Technology 6, 14-17 (2010).

[15] A.Ch. Psimenos, W. Scheitz, G. Eder, Giesserei Praxis 9, 318-320 (2008).

[16] M. Holmgren, Proceedings of the 69th World Foundry Congress, Hangzhou, China, 697-699 (2010).

[17] G.R. Crandell, J.F. Schifo, G. Moser, AFS Transactions 113, 27-29 (2006).

[18] V.S. LaFay, S. Neltner, D. Carroll, D.J. Couture, Modern Casting 10, 27-29 (2010).

[19] M. Kubecki, W. Spiewok, Report from the researches No S0-0654/BC Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy 2008 (in Polish).

[20] M. Kubecki, W. Spiewok, Report from the researches No BO-1316 Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy 2011 (in Polish).

[21] A. Kmita, C. Fischer, K. Hodor, M. Holtzer, A. Roczniak Arabian Journal of Chemistry http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2016.11.003 (2016)

[22] M. Kubecki, M. Holtzer, A. Bobrowski, R. Dańko, B. Grabowska, S. Żymankowska-Kumon, Archives of Foundry Engineering 12 (1), 119-124 (2012) (in Polish).

[23] M. Kubecki, M. Holtzer, Conference materials on CD. Hutni a Prumyslova Analytika, Tale, Slovakia (2012).

[24] M. Holtzer, R. Dańko, Monograph, Foundry commission PAN. Ed. J. Szajnar, Katowice-Gliwice, 133-152 (2009).

[25] M. Holtzer, B. Grabowska., S. Żymankowska-Kumon, D. Kwaśniewska-Królikowska R. Dańko, W. Solarski, A. Bobrowski, Metalurgiija 51 (4), 437-440 (2012).

[26] M. Holtzer, Dańko J., Lewandowski J.L., Solarski W., Dańko R., Grabowska B., Bobrowski A., Żymankowska-Kumon S., Sroczyński A., Różycki A., Skrzyński M. Polish Patent Nr PL 398709 (2013), Polish Patent Office (in Polish).

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

The Journal of Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science and Commitee on Metallurgy of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.571
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.776

CiteScore 2016: 0.85

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.347
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.740

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 105 100 4
PDF Downloads 57 55 4