Experimental Investigation Of Modified Heat Treatment Of AK64-Type Al-Si-Cu Sand Cast Alloy

Open access


An experimental investigation was conducted to observe and analyze the microstructural evolution of phases present in the AK64 Al-Si-Cu alloy subjected to a modified T6 heat treatment (HT). The AK64 alloy1 is the Polish alternative of the A319.0 ASM standard aluminium alloy. The modified T6 HT schedule with a higher temperature and shorter duration was applied in the solutioning process and lower quenching and higher artificial ageing temperature than the prescribed by the ASM standard were used. The cooling curves registered during the liberating of overheating and solidifying processes give important information on nucleation temperatures for the Al dendrite network, Al-Si eutectic reaction and precipitation of Cu-rich phases. Comparison of the as-cast and heat treated microstructures revealed predicted microstructural changes and also partial fragmentation of the Fe-rich phases was observed after the application of the modified HT programme.

[1] W.S. Miller, L. Zhuang, J. Bottema, A.J. Wittebrood, P. De Smet, A. Haszler, A. Vieregge, Recent development in aluminium alloys for the automotive industry, Materials Science and Engineering A 280, 1, 37-49 (2000).

[2] J.G. Kaufman, E.L. Rooy, Aluminum Alloy Castings: Properties, Processes, and Applications, 1st ed., ASM International, , Ohio, USA (2004).

[3] S. Gopikrishna, C.Y. Binu, Study on effects of T6 heat treatment on grain refined A319 alloy with Magnesium and Strontium addition, International Journal on Theoretical and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering 2, 3, 59-62 (2013).

[4] A.L. Kearney, Properties of Cast Aluminum Alloys, in ASM Handbook, Volume 2 Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Special-Purpose Materials, 10th ed., ASM International, 569-666 (1992).

[5] L. Heusler, F.J. Feikus, M.O. Otte, Alloy and Casting Process Optimization for Engine Block Application, AFS Transaction 1, 50, 1-9 (2001).

[6] J. Hirsch, Automotive Trends in Aluminium – The European Perspective, Materials Forum 28, 15-23 (2004).

[7] W. Wołczyński, W. Krajewski, R. Ebner, J. Kloch, The use of equilibrium phase diagram for the calculation of non-equilibrium precitipates in dendritic colidification : theory, Calphad-Computer Coupling and Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry 25, 3, 401-408 (2001).

[8] W. Wołczyński, J. Kloch, R. Ebner, W. Krajewski, The use of equilibrium phase diagram for the calculation of non-equilibrium precipitates in dendritic solidification : validation, Calphad-Computer Coupling and Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry 25, 3, 391-400 (2001).

[9] D. Kalisz, P.L. Żak, Modelling of solute segregation and the formation of non-metallic inclusions during solidification of a titanium-containing steel, Kovove Materialy-Metallic Materials 52, 1-7 (2014).

[10] A.M.A. Mohamed, F.H. Samuel, A review on the heat treatment of Al-Si-Cu/Mg casting alloys, in: Heat Treatment, Rijeka, Croatia, InTech Science, 229-246 (2012).

[11] E. Sjölander, S. Seifeddine, Optimisation of solution treatment of cast Al-Si-Cu alloys, Materials and Design 31, 1, S44-S49 (2010).

[12] W. Krajewski, Phases of heterogeneous nucleation in the ZnAl25 alloy modified by Zn-Ti and Al-Ti master alloys, Zeitschrift fur Metallkunde 87, 645-651 (1996).

[13] W. Krajewski, The effect of Ti addition on properties of selected Zn-Al alloys, Physica Status Solidi A-Applied Research 147, 389-399 (1995).

[14] W.K. Krajewski, A.L. Greer, P.K. Krajewski, Trends in developments of high-aluminium zinc alloys of stable structure and properties, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 58, 859-861 (2013).

[15] P.K. Krajewski, G. Piwowarski, P.L. Żak, W.K. Krajewski, Experiment and numerical modelling the time of a plate-shape casting solidification vs. thermal conductivity of mould material, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 59, 4, 1405-1408 (2014).

[16] W.K. Krajewski, J. Buraś, M. Żurakowski, A.L. Greer, Structure and properties of grain-refined Al – 20 wt% Zn sand cast alloy, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 54, 2,329-334(2009).

[17] J.S. Suchy, J. Lelito, B. Gracz, P.L. Żak, H. Krawiec, Modelling of composite crystallization, China Foundry 9, 2, 184-188 (2012).

[18] B. Mochnacki, E. Majchrzak, Identification of macro and micro parameters in solidification model, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Technical Sciences 55, 1, 107-113 (2007).

[19] W.K. Krajewski, J. Lelito, J.S. Suchy, P. Schumacher, Computed tomography – a new tool in structural examinations of castings, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials 54, 335-338 (2009).

[20] L.H. Cupido, P.L. Żak, Simulation of casting technologies for Al-Si-Cu plate casting, Archive of Foundry Engineering 1, 3,11-14 (2013).

[21] C.R. Brooks, Heat treating of nonferrous alloys, in ASM Handbook 4, Heat Treatment, ASM International, 1826-2124 (1991).

[22] E. Tillova, M. Chalupova, L. Hurtalova, Evolution of the Fe-rich phases in recycled AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy during solution treatment, Communications – Scientific Letters of University of Zilina 10, 4, 95-101 (2010).

[23] J. Lelito, P.L. Zak, A.L. Greer, J.S. Suchy, W.K. Krajewski, B. Gracz, M. Szucki, A.A. Shirzadi, Crystallization model of magnesium primary phase in the AZ91/SiC composite, Composites: Part B 43, 3306-3309 (2012).

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

The Journal of Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science and Commitee on Metallurgy of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.571
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.776

CiteScore 2016: 0.85

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.347
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.740

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 179 155 9
PDF Downloads 77 68 7