The layers near the interface of explosively welded plates were investigated by means of microscopic observations with the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy equipped with electron backscattered diffraction facility (SEM/EBSD). The metal compositions based on carbon or stainless steels (base plate) and Ti, Zr and Ta (flyer plate) were analyzed. The study was focused on the possible interdiffusion across the interface and the changes in the dislocation structure of bonded plates in the layers near-the-interface.
It was found that the extremely rapid temperature increase followed by high cooling rates in the areas near the interface favour the formation of metastable phases. The crystalline or glassy nature of the phases formed inside melted zones strongly depends on the chemical composition of bonded metals. The amorphous phases dominates the melted zone of the (carbon or stainless steel)/Zr whereas the mixture of amorphous phases and nano- grains were identified in (carbon steel)/Ti and (stainless steel)/Ta clads. The elongated shape of the (sub)grains and the randomly distributed dislocations inside them as well as the shear bands and twins observed in the layers near-the-interface of all investigated clads, clearly indicated that during explosive welding, the deformation processes were prevailing over the softening ones.