Anycasting in connection-oriented computer networks: Models, algorithms and results

Open access

Anycasting in connection-oriented computer networks: Models, algorithms and results

Our discussion in this article centers around various issues related to the use of anycasting in connection-oriented computer networks. Anycast is defined as a one-to-one-of-many transmission to deliver a packet to one of many hosts. Anycasting can be applied if the same content is replicated over many locations in the network. Examples of network techniques that apply anycasting are Content Delivery Networks (CDNs), Domain Name Service (DNS), Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems. The role of anycasting is growing concurrently with the popularity of electronic music, movies, and other content required by Internet users. In this work we focus on the optimization of anycast flows in connection-oriented networks. We formulate a model of anycast connections and next propose a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrangean relaxation aimed to optimize jointly routes for anycast and unicast connections. Results of numerical experiments are presented and evaluated. Finally, we analyze briefly problems related to anycasting in dynamic routing and multi-layer networks.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Awerbuch B. Brinkmann A. and Scheideler C. (2003). Anycasting in adversarial systems: Routing and admission control in J.C.M. Baeten J.K. Lenstra J. Parrow and G.J. Woeginger (Eds) Automata Languages and Programming Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 2719 Springer-Verlag Berlin pp. 1153-1168.

  • Baentsch M. Baum L. Molter G. Rothkugel S. and Sturm P. (1997). World wide web caching: The application-level view of the internet IEEE Communications Magazine 35(6): 170-178.

  • Bagula B. Botha M. and Krzesinski A. (2004). Online traffic engineering: The least interference optimization algorithm Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications ICC 2004 Paris France pp. 1232-1236.

  • Ballani H. and Francis P. (2005). Towards a global IP anycast service Proceedings of the Conference on Applications Technologies Architectures and Protocols for Computer Communications ACM SIGCOMM 2004 Philadelphia PA USA pp. 301-312.

  • Burns J. Ott T. Krzesinski A. and Muller K. (2003). Path selection and bandwidth allocation in MPLS networks Performance Evaluation 52(2): 133-152.

  • Byun S. and Yoo C. (2008). Minimum DVS gateway deployment in DVS-based overlay streaming Computer Communications 31(3): 537-550.

  • Doi S. Ata S. Kitamura K. and Murata M. (2004). IPv6 anycast for simple and effective service-oriented communications IEEE Communications Magazine 42(5): 166-171.

  • Fratta L. Gerla M. and Kleinrock L. (1973). The flow deviation method: An approach to store-and-forward communication network design Networks 3(2): 97-133.

  • Gavish B. and Huntler S. (1983). An algorithm for optimal route selection in SNA networks IEEE Transactions on Communications 31(10): 1154-1160.

  • Grover W. (2004). Mesh-based Survivable Networks: Options and Strategies for Optical MPLS SONET and ATM Networking Prentice-Hall PTR Upper Saddle River NJ.

  • Guha S. Meyerson A. and Munagala K. (2001). Improved approximation algorithms for fault tolerant facility location Proceedings of the 12th Annual ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms SODA 2001 Washington DC USA pp. 636-641.

  • Hao F. Zegura E. and Ammar M. (2002). QoS routing for anycast communications: Motivation and an architecture for DiffServ networks IEEE Communications Magazine 40(6): 48-56.

  • Herzberg M. Bye S. and A. Utano (1995). The hop-limit approach for spare-capacity assignment in survivable networks IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 3(6): 775-784.

  • Hofmann M. and Beaumont L. (2005). Content Networking: Architecture Protocols and Practice Morgan Kaufmann San Francisco CA.

  • Holmberg K. (1995). Lagrangean heuristics for linear cost multicommodity network flow problems Technical Report LiTH-MAT-OPT/WP-1995-01 Department of Mathematics Linköping Institute of Technology Linköping.

  • Holmberg K. and Yuan D. (1998). A Lagrangean approach to network design problems International Transactions in Operational Research 5(6): 529-539.

  • Holmberg K. and Yuan D. (2000). A Lagrangean heuristic based branch-and-bound approach for the capacitated network design problem Operations Research 48(3): 461-481.

  • Hou Y. Yi S. and Sherali H. (2006). Optimal base station selection for anycast routing in wireless sensor networks IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 55(3): 813-821.

  • Hyytia E. (2004). Heuristic algorithms for the generalized routing and wavelength assignment problem Proceedings of the 17th Nordic Teletraffic Seminar NTS-17 Fornebu Norway pp. 373-386.

  • Jain K. Mahdin M. and Saberi A. (2002). A new greedy approach for facility location problems Proceedings of the 34th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing STOC 2002 Montreal Canada pp. 731-740.

  • Kar K. Kodialam M. and Lakshman T. (2000). Minimum interference routing of bandwidth guaranteed tunnels with mpls traffic engineering applications IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 18(12): 2566-2579.

  • Kasprzak A. (2001). Designing of Wide Area Networks Wrocław University of Technology Press Wrocław.

  • Kleinrock L. (1964). Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Delay McGraw-Hill New York NY.

  • Krishnan P. Raz D. and Shavitt Y. (2000). The cache location problem IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 8(5): 568-582.

  • Leuf B. (2002). Peer to Peer: Collaboration and Sharing over the Internet Addison Wesley Boston MA.

  • Li B. Golin M. B. Italiano Deng X. and Sohraby K. (1999). On the optimal placement of web proxies in the internet Proceedings of the 18th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies INFOCOM 1999 New York NY USA pp. 1282-1290.

  • Markowski M. and Kasprzak A. (2005). An approximate algorithm for web replica allocation and topology assignment problem in WAN Proceedings of the 17th IMACS World Congress Paris France.

  • Murakami K. and Kim H. (1996). Virtual path routing for survivable ATM networks IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 4(2): 22-39.

  • Paxson V. (2006). End-to-end routing behavior in the Internet SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 36(5): 41-46.

  • Peng G. (2004). CDN: Content distribution network Technical Report cs-NI-0411069 Computing Research Repository http://arxiv.org/abs/cs.NI/0411069

  • Perros H. (2005). Connection-oriented Networks SONET/SDH ATM MPLS and Optical Networks John Wiley and Sons Ltd Chichester.

  • Piro M. and Medhi D. (2004). Routing Flow and Capacity Design in Communication and Computer Networks Morgan Kaufman Publishers San Francisco CA.

  • Qiu L. Padmanabhan V. and Voelker G. (2001). On the placement of web server replicas Proceedings of the 20th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies INFOCOM 2001 Anchorage AK USA pp. 1587-1596.

  • Rabinovich M. (1998). Issues in web content replication Data Engineering Bulletin 24(4): 21-29.

  • Rexford J. Wang J. Xiao Z. and Hang Y. (2002). BGP routing stability of popular destinations Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGCOMM Workshop on Internet Measurement Marseille France pp. 197-202.

  • Rosen E. Viswanathan A. and Callon R. (2001). Multiprotocol label switching architecture Technical Report RFC 3031 Internet Engineering Task Force http://www.ietf.org/

  • Ryba P. and Kasprzak A. (2006). The gateways location and capacity assignment problem in hierarchical WANs: An approximate algorithm and computational results Proceedings of the 18th European Meetings on Cybernetics and Systems Research Vienna Austria pp. 46-51.

  • Steinmetz R. and Wehrle K. (2005). Peer-to-Peer Systems and Applications Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 3485 Springer-Verlag Berlin.

  • Szeto W. Boutaba R. and Iraqi Y. (2002). Dynamic online routing algorithm for MPLS traffic engineering in E. Gregori M. Conti A.T. Cambell G. Omidyar and M. Zukerman Networking 2002: Networking Technologies Services and Protocols; Performance of Computer and Communication Networks; Mobile and Wireless Communications Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 2345 Springer-Verlag Berlin pp. 936-946.

  • Tang M. Jia W. Wang H. and Wang J. (2003). Routing and wavelength assignment for anycast in WDM networks Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communication WOC Banff Canada pp. 301-306.

  • Walkowiak K. (2004). A new method of primary routes selection for local restoration in N. Mitrou K. Kontovasilis G. Rouskas I. Iliadis and L. Merakos (Eds) Networking 2004: Networking Technologies Services and Protocols; Performance of Computer and Communication Networks; Mobile and Wireless Communications Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 3042 Springer-Verlag Berlin pp. 1024-1035.

  • Walkowiak K. (2005). QoS dynamic routing in content delivery network in R. Boutaba K. Almeroth R. Puigjaner S. Shen and J.P. Black (Eds) Networking 2005: Networking Technologies Services and Protocols; Performance of Computer and Communication Networks; Mobile and Wireless Communication Systems Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 3462 Springer-Verlag Berlin pp. 1120-1132.

  • Walkowiak K. (2006). A new function for optimization of working paths in survivable MPLS networks in A. Levi E. Savas H. Yenign S. Balcisoy and Y. Saygin (Eds) Computer and Information Sciences—ISCIS 2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 4263 Springer-Verlag Berlin pp. 424-433.

  • Walkowiak K. (2007a). Anycast communication—A new approach to survivability of connection-oriented networks in V. Gorodetsky I. Kotenko and V. Skormin (Eds) Computer Network Security Communications in Computer and Information Science Vol. 4236 Springer-Verlag Berlin pp. 378-389.

  • Walkowiak K. (2007b). Lagrangean heuristic for primary routes assignment in survivable connection-oriented networks Computational Optimization and Applications 40(2): 119-141.

  • Walkowiak K. (2007c). Survivable routing of unicast and anycast flows in MPLS networks Proceedings of the 3rd EURO-NGI Conference on Next Generation Internet Networks Trondheim Norway pp. 72-79.

  • Walkowiak K. (2008). A flow deviation algorithm for joint optimization of unicast and anycast flows in connection-oriented networks in O. Gervasi B. Murgante A. Laganà D. Taniar Y. Mun and M. Gavrilova Computational Science and Its Applications—ICCSA 2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science Vol. 5073 Springer-Verlag Berlin pp. 797-807.

  • Woźniak M. Kurzyński M. and Puchała E. (1999). Intelligent internet databases for family doctor practise Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing 37(2): 1410-1411.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.504
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.553

CiteScore 2018: 2.09

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.493
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.361

Mathematical Citation Quotient (MCQ) 2018: 0.08

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 280 149 4
PDF Downloads 131 90 2