Minimally Invasive Radiofrequency Ablation for Large Thyroid Toxic Adenoma

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Abstract

Background: Most thyroid nodules are benign and do not need intervention. Toxic adenoma and toxic multinodular goiter (MNG) are common causes of hyperthyroidism, second in prevalence only to Graves’ disease. Toxic adenoma and MNG are the result of focal or diffuse hyperplasia of thyroid follicular cells whose functional capacity is independent from regulation by the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). When conservative treatment modalities fail to ensure an euthyroid state, surgical intervention is required, typically surgical left or right thyroid lobectomy. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new percutaneous treatment option that results in thermal tissue necrosis and fibrosis. As a result of this process, the thyroid nodules shrink.

Case presentation: We describe a case of a young woman with a large toxic thyroid adenoma who refused surgery. She was admitted to a one-day surgery unit and underwent radiofrequency ablation under total intravenous anesthesia. Using “moving shot technique” the procedure went uneventfully and the toxic adenoma displayed a significant volume reduction with resolution of the hyperthyroid symptoms. The patient also reported a significant improvement of her neck symptoms (from 7/10 to 1/10 on a Visual Analogue Scale).

Conclusions: Radiofrequency ablation is a new, well tolerated, safe and effective treatment option in selected patients with benign thyroid nodules, toxic adenomas of the thyroid gland and multinodular goiter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such treatment modality is used in Bulgaria.

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