Laryngeal Mask Ventilation during Tracheostomy Improves Intraoperative Hemodynamic Stability in Patients Undergoing Total Laryngectomy

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Background and objectives: Laryngectomy with extensive extirpational neck dissection is still the treatment of choice for patients with advanced laryngeal cancer. During the initial part of laryngectomy – tracheostomy, there is a significant upper airway obstruction, caused by the cancer process itself and worsened by surgical pressure and manipulation during creation of tracheostomy. This study aims to make comparative assessment of the patient’s hemodynamic parameters, operated using three of the most popular approaches during tracheostomy: local anesthesia with preserved spontaneous ventilation; general anesthesia with ventilation by endotracheal intubation and general anesthesia with ventilation by laryngeal mask airway.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. Sixty patients with advanced laryngeal cancer appointed for total laryngectomy, were enrolled in the study. They were randomly assigned into three groups, according to the ventilation method used during the tracheostomy.

Results: Patients who underwent tracheostomy under local anesthesia displayed statistically the highest levels of SAP, DAP, MAP and heart rate intraoperatively. The group of patients who underwent tracheostomy with endotracheal intubation, also displayed significantly higher levels of hemodynamic parameters during the procedure compared with the group with laryngeal mask airway ventilation, despite the fact that both groups were under general anesthesia.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that laryngeal mask ventilation during tracheostomy improves intraoperative hemodynamic stability in patients undergoing total laryngectomy compared to endotracheal intubation.

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