Statistically, at least 50% of all injuries experienced by police officers in the line of duty are due to assaults with blunt objects. Therefore, vests used by the police should provide not only good ballistic resistance, but also good protection against such threats. Foamed materials are possible to be used for body protectors or inserts of protective clothes. The effects of dynamic impact with beaters of different shapes onto behaviour of polymeric foamed material were determined. There were used four types of beaters: flat, cylindrical, edgy and cornered. Strikes with blunt objects such as a flat board, baseball bat, edgy brick, pavement brick or a sharp stone, to which a protective ware can be subjected, were simulated. The impact load was applied to the rectangular specimens, made of polyvinyl chloride foam, with a usage of a drop hammer. Plots of force versus compression for all the tested samples were obtained and analysed. The effects of impacts with beaters of different shapes onto foamed material samples were presented. A shape of the blunt object significantly influences crushing behaviour of the foamed material. The impact energy of a flat beater is absorbed effectively on a short distance, since it is spread on a relatively large surface. The cylindrical and edgy beaters did not cause fragmentation of the samples, however, on the upper surfaces of the samples, permanent deformations mapping the beaters shapes as well as some cracks occurred. An impact with a sharp object, for example, a cornered beater is very difficult to be neutralized by the foam material, because it is cumulated on a small area.
2. Ashby M. F. et al. (2000), Metal foams – a design guide, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
3. Avalle M., Belingardi G., Montanini R. (2001), Characterization of polymeric structural foams under compressive impact loading by means of energy-absorption diagram, International Journal of Impact Engineering, 25(5), 455-472.
4. Bernard C.A., Bahlouli N., Wagner-Kocher C., Ahzi S., Remond Y. (2015), Impact behaviour of an innovative plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) for the automotive industry; The European Physical Journal Conferences Web of Conferences 94, DYMAT, Lugano, Switzerland.
5. British Standards Institution (2003), BS 7971-8 – Protective clothing and equipment for use in violent situations and in training. Blunt trauma torso, shoulder, abdomen and genital protectors. Requirements and test methods, BSI, UK, 2003.
6. Chen L., Hoo Fatt M.S. (2013), Transversely isotropic mechanical properties of PVC foam under cyclic loading, J Mat Sci, 48(19), 6786-6796.
7. Cook W. (2008), Designing body armour for today’s police, Technical Textiles, 3/4, 50-53.
8. Department of Defence Test Method Standard, MIL-STD-622F (1997), V50 ballistic test for armor, Department of Defence, U.S.
9. Gdoutos E.E., Daniel I.M., Wang K-A. (2001), Multiaxial characterization and modeling of a PVC cellular foam, J Thermoplast Compos Mater, 14(5), 365–373.
10. Hoo Fatt M.S., Chen L. (2015), A viscoelastic damage model for hysteresis in PVC H100 foam under cyclic loading, Journal of Cellular Plastics, 51(3), 269–287.
11. Hoo Fatt M.S., Jacob A. J., Tong X., MacHado-Reyes A. (2017), Crushing behavior and energy absorption of PVC foam: an anisotropic visco-elastic-plastic-damage model, 21st International Conference on Composite Materials, Xi’an, China, August 20-25, 2017.
12. Loup D.C., Matteson R.C., Gielen A.W.J. (2005), Material characterization of PVC foam under static and dynamic loading. In: Thomsen O.T., Bozhevolnaya E., Lyckegaard A., editors. Sandwich structures 7: advancing with sandwich structures and materials: proceedings of the 7th international conference on sandwich structures, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark, 29–31 August 2005.
13. Luong D.D., Pinisetty D., Gupta N. (2013), Compressive properties of closed-cell polyvinyl chloride foams at low and high strain rates: Experimental investigation and critical review of state of the art, Composites Part B: Engineering, 44(1), 403–416.
14. Mahfuz H., Thomas T., Rangari V., Jeelani S. (2006), On the dynamic response of sandwich composites and their core materials, Composites Science and Technology, 66(14), 2465-2472.
15. NIJ standard 0101.04 (2000), Ballistic resistance of personal body armor, U.S. Department of Justice, U.S.
16. NIJ standard 0115.00 (2000), Stab resistance of personal body armor, U.S. Department of Justice, U.S.
17. NIJ standard 101.06 (2008), Ballistic resistance of body armor, U.S. Department of Justice, U.S.
18. Polish Committee of Standardization (2002), PN-EN 13277-1:2002 – Protective equipment for martial arts – Part 1: General requirements and test methods, PKN, Warsaw, (in Polish).
19. Polish Committee of Standardization (2008), PN-EN 13546:2008 – Protective clothing – Hand, arm, chest, abdomen, leg, foot, and genital protectors for field hockey goal keepers, and shin protectors for field players – Requirements and test methods, PKN, Warsaw, (in Polish).
20. Polish Committee of Standardization (2010), PN-EN 13158:2010 – Protective clothing – Protective jackets, body and shoulder for equestrian use: For horse riders and those working with horses, and for horse drivers – Requirements and test methods, PKN, Warsaw, (in Polish).
21. Polish Committee of Standardization (2011), PN-V-87000:2011 – Lightweight ballistic shields. Bullet- and fragment-proof vests. General requirements and tests, PKN, Warsaw, (in Polish).
22. Polish Committee of Standardization (2014), PN-EN 1621-2:2014-03 – Motorcyclist’ protective clothing against mechanical impact, PKN, Warsaw (in Polish).
23. Tagarielli V.L., Deshpande V.S., Fleck N.A. (2008), The high strain rate response of PVC foams and end-grain balsa wood, Composites Part B: Engineering, Elsevier, 39(1), 83-91.
24. Zhang S., Dulieu-Barton J.M., Fruehmann R.K., Thomsen O.T. (2012), A methodology for obtaining material properties of polymeric foam at elevated temperatures. Experimental Mechanics, 52(1), 3–15.