The Effectiveness of Four-Factor Therapy: The Relationship of Therapy, Therapy Expectation, Increasing Awareness and Ordered Behavior on Reducing Marriage Conflicts

Open access

Abstract

Marriage conflicts lead to reduction of marriage, health and the healthy relationship with children. The side-effects of dissatisfaction with mental and physical health of spouses and children show the necessity of marriage interactions improvement and codification of various plans. This research attempts to present new results by investigating the effectiveness of four-factor therapy: the effect of therapy, therapy hope and expectation, increasing awareness, and ordered-behavior in marriage conflicts. This research is a semi-experimental based on the research type, 26 people were selected randomly among 40 people who were volunteering to take part in the therapy group and they were distributed into two groups experiment and control. The people who were in the experiment group experience than 2-hour sessions of group tetrahedron psychotherapy and the 54-questions questionnaire of marriage conflicts were applied in both groups as a pre-test and post-test questionnaire. Multi-variable covariance analysis was deployed in order to analyze the data. The data showed the significant difference between the scores of experimental group and control group and these results show the effectiveness of four-factor psychotherapy as an effective approach for reducing marriage conflicts and for improvement of couples′ relationships. The four-factor components of therapy can be effective on reducing marriage conflicts separately. Actually, this approach creates a relationship therapy (the hope creation in relationship improvement) and by this method the couple get noticed of their problem and understand how to modify their behavior and subsequently how to organize it.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Sadock BJ. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry(2003). Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Baltimore MD: Williams and Wilkins.

  • Karaırmak Ö Duran NO (2008). Gender differences in attachment styles regarding conflict handling behaviors among Turkish late adolescents. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling. 30(4):220-34.

  • Davis KD Crouter AC McHale SM (2006). Implications of Shift Work for Parent-Adolescent Relationships in Dual‐Earner Families. Family Relations. 55(4):450-60.

  • Halford W (2001). Brief couple therapy for couples. New York: Guilford publications.

  • Tavakolizadeh J Nejatian M Soori A (2015). The Effectiveness of communication skills training on marital conflicts and its different aspects in women. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 171:214-21.

  • Saltzman NE Norcross JC (1990). Therapy wars: Contention and convergence in differing clinical approaches: Jossey- Bass.

  • Snyder CR (2000). Handbook of hope: Theory measures and applications: Academic press.

  • Lambert MJ Barley DE (2001). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. Psychotherapy: Theory research practice training. 38(4):357.

  • Kadera SW Lambert MJ Andrews AA (1996). How much therapy is really enough?: A session-by-session analysis of the psychotherapy dose-effect relationship. The Journal of psychotherapy practice and research. 5(2):132.

  • Karver MS Handelsman JB Fields S Bickman L (2006). Meta-analysis of therapeutic relationship variables in youth and family therapy: The evidence for different relationship variables in the child and adolescent therapy outcome literature. Clinical psychology review. 26(1):50-65.

  • Carson JW Carson KM Gil KM Baucom DH (2004). Mindfulness-based relationship enhancement. Behavior therapy. 35(3):471-94.

  • Wysocki T Harris MA Buckloh LM Mertlich D Lochrie AS Taylor A et al (2006). Effects of behavioral family systems therapy for diabetes on adolescents’ family relationships therapy adherence and metabolic control. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. 31(9):928-38.

  • Lawson WA (2008). Improving Couple Communication Through the Imago Getting the Love You Want Workshop for Couples.

  • Hendrix H Hunt H (1999). Imago relationship therapy: Creating a conscious marriage or relationship. Preventive approaches in couples therapy. 169-95.

  • Fisch L Privman E Ramot M Harel M Nir Y Kipervasser S et al (2009). Neural “ignition”: enhanced activation linked to perceptual awareness in human ventral stream visual cortex. Neuron. 64(4):562-74.

  • Miller AJ Bobner RF Zarski JJ (2000). Sexual identity development: A base for work with same-sex couple partner abuse. Contemporary Family Therapy. 22(2):189-200.

  • Johnson SM Whiffen VE (2003). Attachment processes in couple and family therapy: Guilford Press.

  • Acitelli L (1992). Gender differences in relationship awareness and marital satisfaction among young married couples.

  • Croyle KL Waltz J (2002). EMOTIONAL AWARENESS AND COUPLES'RELATIONSHIP SATISFACTION. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy. 28(4):435-44.

  • Ehrlich FM (2001). Levels of self-awareness: Countertransference in psychoanalysis couple and family therapy. Contemporary Psychoanalysis. 37(2):283-96.

  • Marton F Booth SA (1997). Learning and awareness: Psychology Press.

  • Miller S Wackman DB Nunnally EW (1976). Couple Workbook: Increasing Awareness and Communication Skills: Interpersonal Communication Programs.

  • Heinrichs N Zimmermann T Huber B Herschbach P Russell DW Baucom DH (2012). Cancer distress reduction with a couple-based skills training: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 43(2):239-52.

  • Beatty LJ Koczwara B Rice J Wade TD (2010). A randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of a selfhelp workbook intervention on distress coping and quality of life after breast cancer diagnosis. Medical Journal of Australia. 193(5):S68.

  • Higgins RL Snyder CR (1991). Reality negotiation and excuse-making. Handbook of social and clinical psychology: The health perspective. 79-95.

  • Feuz C (2012). Hoping for the best while preparing for the worst: a literature review of the role of hope in palliative cancer patients. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences. 43(3):168-74.

  • Berendes D Keefe FJ Somers TJ Kothadia SM Porter LS Cheavens JS (2010). Hope in the context of lung cancer: relationships of hope to symptoms and psychological distress. Journal of pain and symptom management. 40(2):174-82.

  • McClement SE Chochinov HM (2008). Hope in advanced cancer patients. European Journal of Cancer. 44(8):1169-74.

  • Cheavens JS Feldman DB Woodward JT Snyder C (2006). Hope in cognitive psychotherapies: On working with client strengths. Journal of cognitive Psychotherapy. 20(2):135-45.

  • Scheier MF Carver CS (2001). Adapting to cancer: The importance of hope and purpose.

  • Vaziri S Kashani FL (2016). Sexuality after breast cancer: need for guideline. Iranian journal of cancer prevention. 2012;5(1):10.

  • Taherian B Ghojavand K Iravani MR. The Effect of Training Hope Therapy on Reduction of Marital Boredom of Married Women. Iranian Journal of Positive Psychology ISSN 2423-6985. 2(1).

  • Vilaythong AP Arnau RC Rosen DH Mascaro N. Humor and hope: Can humor increase hope? Humor. 2003;16(1):79-90.

  • Ripley JS Worthington Jr EL (2002). Hope-focused and forgiveness-based group interventions to promote marital enrichment. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD. 80(4):452.

  • Worthington Jr EL Hight TL Ripley JS Perrone KM Kurusu TA Jones DR (1997). Strategic hope-focused relationship-enrichment counseling with individual couples. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 44(4):381.

  • DiBlasio FA Benda BB (1991). Practitioners religion and the use of forgiveness in the clinical setting. Journal of Psychology and Christianity.

  • K F (2004). Comparing effectiveness of rational-e motive-behavior marital counseling reality marital counseling and combination of them on marital conflicts. [PhD Thesis]. Tehran: School of Education and Psychology The University of Allameh Tabatabaee.

  • Enright RD (2001). Forgiveness is a choice: A step-by-step process for resolving anger and restoring hope: American Psychological Association.

  • Snyder CR (1995). Conceptualizing measuring and nurturing hope. Journal of Counseling and Development: JCD. 73(3):355.

  • Worthington Jr EL Hook JN Ripley JS Miller AJ (2007). The Hope-Focused Approach to Couple Therapy and Enrichment. Journal of Psychology & Christianity. 26(2).

  • Kelly S Iwamasa GY (2006). Enhancing behavioral couple therapy: Addressing the therapeutic alliance hope and diversity. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. 12(1):102-12.

  • Ripley J Worthington E Maclin VL Carson D Casado-Kehor M (2011). The hope-focused approach to couple enrichment and counseling. Case studies in couple therapy: Theory based approaches. 369-81.

  • Davis SD Lebow JL Sprenkle DH (2012). Common factors of change in couple therapy. Behavior therapy. 43(1):36-48.

  • Chang EC (1998). Hope problem‐solving ability and coping in a college student population: Some implications for theory and practice. Journal of clinical psychology. 54(7):953-62.

  • Wells M (2005). The effects of gender age and anxiety on hope: Differences in the expression of pathways and agency thought: Texas A & M University-Commerce.

  • Robinson CA (2012). “Our best hope is a cure.” Hope in the context of advance care planning. Palliative and Supportive Care. 10(02):75-82.

  • Snyder C Irving LM Anderson JR (1991). Hope and health. Handbook of social and clinical psychology: The health perspective. 162:285-305.

  • Feldman DB Snyder CR (2005). Hope and the meaningful life: Theoretical and empirical associations between goal-directed thinking and life meaning. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 24(3):401.

  • Vivekananda K (2000). Integrating models for understanding self injury. Psychotherapy in Australia. 7(1):18.

  • Mann T De Ridder D Fujita K (2013). Self-regulation of health behavior: social psychological approaches to goal setting and goal striving. Health Psychology. 32(5):487.

  • Wills TA Bantum EOC (2012). Social support self-regulation and resilience in two populations: Generalpopulation adolescents and adult cancer survivors. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 31(6):568.

  • Isasi CR Wills TA (2011). Behavioral self-regulation and weight-related behaviors in inner-city adolescents: a model of direct and indirect effects. Childhood Obesity (Formerly Obesity and Weight Management). 7(4):306-15.

  • De Stobbeleir KE Ashford SJ Buyens D (2011). Self-regulation of creativity at work: The role of feedbackseeking behavior in creative performance. Academy of Management Journal. 54(4):811-31.

  • Duckworth AL Grant H Loew B Oettingen G Gollwitzer PM (2011). Self‐regulation strategies improve selfdiscipline in adolescents: Benefits of mental contrasting and implementation intentions. Educational Psychology. 31(1):17-26.

  • Stadler G Oettingen G Gollwitzer PM (2010). Intervention effects of information and self-regulation on eating fruits and vegetables over two years. Health Psychology. 29(3):274.

  • Ryan RM Deci EL (2006). Self‐regulation and the problem of human autonomy: does psychology need choice self‐determination and will? Journal of personality. 74(6):1557-86.

  • Reid R Trout AL Schartz M (2005). Self-regulation interventions for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Exceptional Children. 71(4):361.

  • Wilson KL Charker J Lizzio A Halford K Kimlin S (2005). Assessing how much couples work at their relationship: the behavioral self-regulation for effective relationships scale. Journal of Family Psychology. 19(3):385.

  • Shadish WR Montgomery LM Wilson P Wilson MR Bright I Okwumabua T (1993). Effects of family and marital psychotherapies: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 61(6):992.

  • Epstein N Baucom DH (1993). Cognitive factors in marital disturbance.

  • Schilling EA Baucom DH Burnett CK Allen ES Ragland L ( 2003). Altering the course of marriage: the effect of PREP communication skills acquisition on couples' risk of becoming maritally distressed. Journal of Family Psychology. 17(1):41.

  • Fincham FD Bradbury TN Beach SR (1990). To arrive where we began: A reappraisal of cognition in marriage and in marital therapy. Journal of Family Psychology. 4(2):167.

  • Karney BR Bradbury TN (1995). The longitudinal course of marital quality and stability: A review of theory methods and research. Psychological bulletin. 118(1):3.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 225 82 1
PDF Downloads 131 57 3