The benthic foraminifer Stomatorbina binkhorsti (Reuss, 1862): Taxonomic review and ecological insights

Abstract

The benthic foraminifer Rosalina binkhorsti Reuss, 1862, was cosmopolitan in Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene shallow-water seas. It possesses a distinctive composite wall made of a continuous, agglutinated layer discontinuously covered by secondary hyaline outer deposits. Its taxonomic position, phylogeny, morphology, wall structure, and composition have been debated for a long time. Based on abundant, well-preserved material from the Danian of the Kambühel Formation in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria, we identify elements in the here emended species Stomatorbina binkhorsti which support a strong affinity to the order Textulariida, within the genus Stomatorbina Dorreen, 1948. Usually regarded as free (non-fixing), S. binkhorsti is here illustrated attached to small bioclasts in high-energy carbonate settings. The attached specimens are juvenile forms with a wall covered by massive hyaline deposits. This observation suggests that secondary lamellar parts added to the wall may have served for stabilisation or fixation to the substrate.

Rosalina binkhorsti Reuss, 1862, war eine in den Flachwassermeeren der Oberkreide und des frühen Paläogens kosmopolitische benthonische Foraminifere. Sie besitzt eine zusammengesetzte Wand, bestehend aus einer kontinuierlichen agglutinierten Lage welche diskontinuierlich von äusseren sekundär-hyalinen Abschnitten bedeckt ist. Ihre taxonomische Position, Phylogenie, Morphologie, Wandstruktur und –zusammensetzung ist seit langem umstritten. Basierend auf gut erhaltenem und reichhaltigem Material aus dem Danium der Kambühel Formation in den Nördlichen Kalkalpen von Österreich, werden Charakteristika identifiziert, welche nachhaltig eine Affinität zur Gattung Stomatorbina Dorreen, 1948 innerhalb der Ordnung Textulariida belegen. Diese Foraminiferenart, gewöhnlich als frei lebend (nicht fixiert) angesehen, wird illustriert fixiert an kleine Bioklasten in einem hochenergetischen karbonatischen Ablagerungsmilieu. Die fixierten Formen sind gewöhnlich juvenile Exemplare deren Wand mehr oder weniger massiv von hyalinen Ablagerungen bedeckt ist. Dies lässt vermuten, dass sekundäre lamellare Ablagerung, die der Wand hinzugefügt werden, eine Rolle in der Stabilisierung oder der Fixierung auf dem Substrat spielten.

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