Levels of soya aeroallergens during dockside unloading as measured by personal and static sampling / Razine aeroalergena soje za vrijeme iskrcavanja na lučkom doku

Howard Mason 1 , Susana Gómez-Ollés 2 , 3 , Maria-Jesus Cruz 2 , 3 , Ian Smith 1 , Gareth Evans 1 , Andrew Simpson 1 , Peter Baldwin 1 , and Gordon Smith 4
  • 1 Health and Safety Laboratory, Buxton, Spain
  • 2 UK, Servicio de Neumología, Hospital Universitario Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain
  • 3 CIBER Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Spain
  • 4 Health and Safety Executive, Newcastle, Spain

Abstract

Soya is an important worldwide agricultural product widely shipped and imported in bulk. It contains a number of recognised allergens and the use of soya products and its dockside unloading have been associated with occupational asthma and community episodes of asthma. Two recognised inhalation soya allergens, soya trypsin inhibitor (STI) and hydrophobic soya protein (HSP), were measured in personal and static air samples collected at a United Kingdom (UK) dock during 3 days of unloading three bulks of processed soya beans and soya pelletised husk. Static samples included task-related and those taken at the workplace perimeter and neighbouring sites. Soluble total protein (STP) and gravimetric dust analyses were also undertaken. While gravimetric dust results in personal air samples were below half of the current UK exposure limit of 10 mg m-3 for grain dust, and generally less than 0.5 mg m-3 for the static samples, airborne concentrations for STI and HSP ranged between 0-3,071 and 11-12,629 ng m-3, respectively, while the correlation between the two specific allergen measurements was generally good (Rank Spearman coefficient 0.74). The data from this investigation suggest that HSP is a more sensitive indicator of soya exposure than STI, but only for soya husk, while STI may be equipotent in detecting exposure to both hull and bean derived soya products. Both assays appear sensitive techniques for investigating the control of exposure to allergenic soy material. The endotoxin level in the husk bulk was 15-60-fold that found in the two chipped bean bulks.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Antonicello L, Ruello M, Monsalve R, Gonzalez R, Fava G, Bonifazi F. Assessment of airborne soy-hull allergen (Gly m 1) in the Port of Ancona, Italy. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;42:178-85. PMID: 21192626

  • 2. Albert R. A propos de douze cas de sensibilisation au groupe des légumineuses comestibles [Twelve cases of sensitization to the group of edible leguminosa, in French]. Rev Fr Allergol 1973;13:399-410. doi: 10.1016/S0035-2845(73)80061-7

  • 3. White M, Etzel R, Olsen D, Goldstein I. Re-examination of epidemic asthma in New Orleans in relation of the presence of soy at the harbour. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:432-8. PMID: 9048517

  • 4. Cocco G, Schiano M, Sacerdote G. Functional characteristics in soybean asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995;152(Suppl):469.

  • 5. Navarro C, Márquez M, Hernando L, Galvañ F, Zapatero L, Caravaca F. Epidemia asthma in Cartegena, Spain and its association with soybean sensitivity. Epidemiology 1993;4:76-9. PMID: 8420586

  • 6. Garcia-Ortega P, Rovira E, Mora E. Epidemias de asma alérgica a semilla de soja en ciudades pequeñas [Soy-seed asthma epidemics in small cities, in Spanish]. Med Clin (Barc) 1997;109:677. PMID: 9312586

  • 7. Ballester F, Soriano J, Otero I, Rivera ML, Sunyer J, Merelles A, Verea H, Marfn J, Anto JM. Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbours of Valencia and Coruña, Spain. Am J Epidemiol 1999;149:315-22. PMID: 10025473

  • 8. Anto J, Sunyer J, Rodriguez-Roisin R, Suarez-Cervera M, Vasquez L. Community outbreaks of asthma associated with inhalation of soybean dust. New Engl J Med 1989;320:1097-102. PMID: 2710172

  • 9. Duke WW. Soybean as a possible important source of allergy. J Allergy 1934;5:300-2.

  • 10. Baur X, Pau M, Czuppon A, Fruhmann G. Characterisation of soybean allergens causing sensitisation of occupationally exposed bakers. Allergy 1996;51:326-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.1996.tb04617.x

  • 11. Pepys J. Occupational allergic lung diseases caused by organic agents. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1986;5:1058-62. PMID: 3782667

  • 12. Bush R, Schoeckenstein D, Meier-Davis S. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;82:251-5. PMID: 3042839

  • 13. Quirce S, Polo F, Figueredo E, Gonzalez R, Sastre J. Occupational asthma caused by soybean flour in bakersdifferences with soybean-induced epidemic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30:839-46. PMID: 10848902

  • 14. Rodrigo M, Morell F, Helm R, Swanson M, Greife A, Anto J, Sunyer J, Reed CE. Identification and partial characterisation of the soy-bean dust allergens involved in the Barcelona asthma epidemic. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;85:778-84. PMID: 2324415

  • 15. Swanson M, Li J, Wentz-Murtha P, Trudeau W, Fernandez- Caldas E, Griefe A, Rodrigo MA, Morell F, Reed CE. Source of the aeroallergen of soybean dust: a low molecular mass from the soyabean tela. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991;87:783-8. PMID: 2013673

  • 16. Gonzalez R, Varela J, Carreira J, Polo F. Soybean hydrophobic protein and soybean hull allergy. Lancet 1995;346:48-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(95)92676-3

  • 17. Odani S, Koide T, Ono T, Seto Y, Tanaka T. Soybean hydrophobic protein: isolation, partial characterisation and the complete primary structure. Eur J Biochem 1987;162:485-91. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1987.tb10666.x

  • 18. Lavaud F, Perdu D, Prévost A, Vallerand H, Cossart C, Passemard F. Baker’s asthma related to soybean lecithin e x p o s u r e . A l l e rg y 19 9 4 ; 4 9 : 1 5 9 - 6 2 . do i : 10.1111/j.1398-9995.1994.tb00819.x

  • 19. Quirce S, Fernández-Nieto M, Polo F, Sastre J. Soybean trypsin inhibitor is an occupational inhalant allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:178. PMID: 11799388

  • 20. Gómez-Ollés S, Cruz MJ, Bogdanovic J, Wouters IM, Doekes G, Sander I, Morell F, Rodrigo MJ. Assessment of soy aeroallergens levels in different work environments. Clin Exp Allergy 2007;37:1863-72. PMID: 17927797

  • 21. Gómez-Ollés S, Cruz M, Renstrom A, Doekes G, Morell F, Rodrigo M. An amplified sandwich EIA for the measurement of soy aeroallergens. Clin Exp Allergy 2006;36:1176-83. PMID: 16961718

  • 22. L’Hocine L, Boye J. Allergenicity of soybean: new developments in identification of allergenic proteins, crossreactivities and hypoallergenization technologies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2007;47:127-43. PMID: 17364698

  • 23. Health and Safety Executive. General methods for the sampling and gravimetric analysis of respirable and total inhalable dust. MDHS 14/4 [displayed 9 January 2015]. Available at http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/mdhs/pdfs/mdhs14-4.pdf

  • 24. Health and Safety Executive. EH40/2005 Workplace exposure limits. 2nd ed. 2011 [displayed 9 January 2015]. Available at http://www.hse.gov.uk/pUbns/priced/eh40.pdf

  • 25. Spies A, Rees D, Fourie A, Wilson K, Harris-Roberts J, Robinson E. Inhalable dust and protein exposure in soybean processing plants. Int J Occup Environ Health 2008;14:225-30. PMID: 18686724

  • 26. Harris-Roberts J, Robinson E, Fishwick D, Fourie A, Rees D, Spies A, Curran A, Sen D, Barber C. Sensitization and symptoms associated with soybean exposure in processing plants in South Africa. Am J Ind Med 2012;55:458-64. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22009

  • 27. Baur X, Chen Z, Liebers V. Exposure-response relationships of occupational inhalative allergens. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:537-44. PMID: 9645589

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search