Prevalence and Correlates of Hypertension in A Transitional Southeastern European Population: Results from the Albanian Demographic and Health Survey

Open access

Abstract

We assessed the prevalence and socioeconomic and behavioural correlates of hypertension in the young to middle-aged population of Albania, a transitional post-communist country in the Western Balkans. We analysed a sample of 2,837 men and 3,580 women aged 15 to 49 from the 2008/2009 Albanian Demographic and Health Survey. Hypertension was defined as SBP≥140 mm Hg, or DBP≥90 mm Hg, or if the subjects were under treatment for hypertension. Data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and behavioural factors were also collected. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of hypertension with covariates. Hypertension was significantly higher among men (27.3 %) than women (20.0 %), and significantly increased with age. The harmful effect of excessive weight and obesity on hypertension was stronger among women than among men and this effect increased with age, especially in women. Smoking and alcohol were risk factors for hypertension in men, but not women. Education had a protective effect on hypertension in women but not in men.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. He J Whelton PK. Epidemiology and prevention of hypertension. Med Clin North Am 1997;81:1077-97. PMID: 9308599

  • 2. Whelton PK. Epidemiology of hypertension. Lancet 1994;344:101-6. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(94)91285-8

  • 3. Ezzati M Lopez AD Rodgers A Vander Hoorn S Murray CJ; The Comparative Risk Assessment Collaborating Group. Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 2002;360:1347-60. doi:10.1016/ S0140-6736(02)11403-6

  • 4. Kaplan GA Keil JE. Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature. Circulation 1993;88:1973-98. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.88.4.1973

  • 5. Antonakoudis G Poulimenos I Kifnidis K Zouras C Antonakoudis H. Blood pressure control and cardiovascular risk reduction. Hippokratia 2007;11:114-9. doi: 10.1161/01. CIR.88.4.1973

  • 6. Kearney PM Whelton M Reynolds K Munter P Whelton PK He J. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005;365:217-23. doi: 10.1016/ S0140-6736(05)17741-1

  • 7. Kearney PM Whelton M Reynolds K Munter P Whelton PK He J. Worldwide prevalence of hypertension: a systematic review. J Hypertens 2004;22:11-9. PMID: 15106785

  • 8. Kunst AE del Rios M Groenhof F Mackenbach JP. Socioeconomic inequalities in stroke mortality among middle-aged men: an international overview. European Union Working Group on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health. Stroke 1998;29:2285-91. PMID: 9804635

  • 9. Kunst AE Groenhof F Mackenbach JP Health EW. Occupational class and cause specific mortality in middle aged men in 11 European countries: comparison of population based studies. EU Working Group on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health. BMJ 1998;316:1636-42. doi: 10.1136/ bmj.316.7145.1636

  • 10. Marmot MG Rose G Shipley M Hamilton PJ. Employment grade and coronary heart disease in British civil servants. J Epidemiol Community Health 1978;32:244-9. PMID: 744814

  • 11. Pocock SJ Shaper AG Cook DG Phillips AN Walker M. Social class differences in ischaemic heart disease in British men. Lancet 1987;2:197-201. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(87)90774-4

  • 12. Colhoun HM Hemingway H Poulter NR. Socio-economic status and blood pressure: an overview analysis. J Hum Hypertens 1998;12:91-110. PMID: 9504351

  • 13. Seeman T Merkin SS Crimmins E Koretz B Charette S Karlamangla A. Education income and ethnic differences in cumulative biological risk profiles in a national sample of US adults: NHANES III (1988-1994). Soc Sci Med 2008;66:72-87. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.08.027

  • 14. Fernald LCH Adler NE. Blood pressure and socioeconomic status in low-income women in Mexico: a reverse gradient? J Epidemiol Community Health 2008;62:e8 doi:10.1136/ jech.2007.065219.

  • 15. Hu G Tian H. A comparison of dietary and non-dietary factors of hypertension and normal blood pressure in a Chinese population. J Hum Hypertens 2001;15:487-93. PMID: 11464259

  • 16. Jousilahti P Tuomilehto J Vartiainen E Valle T Nissinen A. Body mass index blood pressure diabetes and the risk of anti-hypertensive drug treatment: 12-year follow-up of middle-aged people in eastern Finland. J Hum Hypertens 1995;9:847-54. PMID: 8576902

  • 17. World Heart Organization Study Group. Diet Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. WHO Technical Report Series No. 797. Geneva: WHO; 1990.

  • 18. Borrell C Rue M Pasarin MI Rohlfs I Ferrando J Fernandez E. Trends in social class inequalities in health status healthrelated behaviors and health services utilization in a Southern European urban area (1983-1994). Prev Med 2000;31:691-701. doi: 10.1006/pmed.2000.0751

  • 19. Hamet P Pausova Z Adarichev V Adaricheva K Tremblay J. Hypertens: genes and environment. J Hypertens 1998;16:397-418. PMID: 9797185

  • 20. Gjonca A. Communism Health and Lifestyle. The Paradox of Mortality Transition in Albania 1950-1990. Westport (CT): Greenwood Press; 2001.

  • 21. Albania Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09 [displayed 14 October 2013]. Available at http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/FR230/FR230.pdf

  • 22. Armenia Demographic and Health Survey 2005 [displayed 14 October 2013]. Available at http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/FR184/FR184.pdf

  • 23. Azerbaijan Demographic and Health Survey 2006 [displayed 14 October 2013]. Available at http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/FR195/FR195.pdf

  • 24. The World Bank. Bosnia and Herzegovina Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006 BIH_2006_MICS_v01_M [displayed 7 November 2013]. Available at http://microdata.worldbank.org/index.php/catalog/41

  • 25. Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey 2007 [displayed 14 October 2013]. Available at http://www.measuredhs.com/pubs/pdf/FR210/FR210.pdf

  • 26. Shapo L Pomerleau J McKee M. Epidemiology of hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors in a country in transition: a population based survey in Tirana City Albania. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003;57:734-9. doi: 10.1136/jech.57.9.734

  • 27. Burazeri G Goda A Sulo G Stefa J Roshi E Kark JD. Conventional risk factors and acute coronary syndrome during a period of socioeconomic transition: populationbased case-control study in Tirana Albania. Croat Med J 2007;48:225-33. PMID: 17436387

  • 28. de Munter JSL Agyemang C van Valkengoed IG Bhopal R Stronks K. Sex difference in blood pressure among South Asian diaspora in Europe and North America and the role of BMI: a meta-analysis. J Hum Hypertens 2011;25:407-17. doi: 10.1038/jhh.2010.77

  • 29. Kearney PM Whelton M Reynolds K Whelton PK He J. Worldwide prevalence of hypertension: a systematic review. J Hypertens 2004;22:11-9. PMID: 15106785

  • 30. Blood pressure studies in 14 communities. A two-stage screen for hypertension. JAMA 1977;237:2385-91. doi: 10.1001/ jama.1977.03270490025018

  • 31. Himmelmann A Svensson A Hansson L. Influence of sex on blood pressure and left ventricular mass in adolescents: the Hypertension in Pregnancy Offspring Study. J Hum Hypertens 1994;8:485-90. PMID: 7932510

  • 32. Schenck-Gustafsson K. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women: assessment and management. Eur Heart J 1996;17(Suppl D):2-8. PMID: 8869875

  • 33. Kotchen JM McKean HE Kotchen TA. Blood pressure trends with aging. Hypertension 1982;4(5 Part 2):III128-34. PMID: 7049927

  • 34. Os I Oparil S Gerdts E Hoieggen A. Essential hypertension in women. Blood Press 2004;13:272-8. PMID: 15545149

  • 35. Canoy D Luben R Welch A Bingham S Wareham N Day N Khaw KT. Fat distribution body mass index and blood pressure in 22090 men and women in the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) study. J Hypertens 2004;22:2067-74. PMID: 15480089

  • 36. Stamler R Stamler J Riedlinger WF Algera G Roberts R. Weight and blood pressure: findings in hypertension screening of 1 million. Americans. JAMA 1978;240:1607-10. doi: 10.1001/jama.1978.03290150053024

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.436
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.606

CiteScore 2018: 1.53

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.358
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.608

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 175 110 0
PDF Downloads 79 53 0