Inertisation of galvanic sludge with calcium oxide, activated carbon, and phosphoric acid

Open access

In this study we compared three methods for the treatment of electroplating sludge highly loaded with zinc and iron: (1) calcium oxide-based solidifi cation/stabilisation; (2) conversion into inert material by adsorption of organic and inorganic pollutants onto activated carbon; and (3) conversion of mobile waste components into insoluble phosphates. All three methods proved highly effi cient in the conversion of hazardous waste into inert material. Under optimum treatment conditions zinc concentration in the leachate of solidifi ed waste was reduced by 99.7 % compared to untreated sludge. Zinc retention effi ciency in the waste treated with activated carbon and phosphoric acid was 99.9 % and 98.7 %, respectively. The advantages of electroplating sludge treatment with activated carbon over the other two methods are high sorption capacity, insignifi cant pH and volume changes of the sludge, and simple use.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Jandova J Štefanova T Niemczykova R. Recovery of Cuconcentrates from waste galvanic copper sludges. Hydrometallurgy 2000;57:77-84.

  • 2. Veglio F Quaresima R Fornari P Ubaldini S. Recovery of valuable metals from electronic and galvanic industrial wastes by leaching and electrowinning. Waste Manag 2003;23:245-52.

  • 3. Silva JE Soares D Paiva AP Labrincha JA Castro F. Leaching behaviour of a galvanic sludge in sulphuric acid and ammoniacal media. J Hazard Mater 2005;121:195-202.

  • 4. Miškufova A Havlik T Laubertova M Ukašik M. Hydrometallurgical route for copper zinc and chromium recovery from galvanic sludge. Acta Metallurgica Slovaca 2006;12:293-302.

  • 5. Rossini G Bernardes AM. Galvanic sludge metals recovery by pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical treatment. J Hazard Mater 2006;131:210-6.

  • 6. Chen D Yu Y-Z Zhu H-J Liu Z-Z Xu Y-F Liu Q Qian G-R. Ferrite process of electroplating sludge and enrichment of copper by hydrothermal reaction. Sep Pur Technol 2008;62:297-303.

  • 7. Espinosa DCR Tenorio JAS. Laboratory study of galvanic sludge’s infl uence on the clinkerization process. Resour Conserv Recycl 2000;31:71-82.

  • 8. Ract PG Espinosa DCR Tenorio JAS. Determination of Cu and Ni incorporation ratios in Portland cement clinker. Waste Manage 2003;23:281-5.

  • 9. Magalhaes JM Silva JE Castro FP Labrincha JA. Role of the mixing conditions and composition of galvanic sludges on the inertization process in clay-based ceramics. J Hazard Mater 2004;106B:169-76.

  • 10. Magalhaes JM Silva JE Castro FP Labrincha JA. Effect of experimental variables on the inertization of galvanic sludges in clay-based ceramics. J Hazard Mater 2004;106B:139-47.

  • 11. Magalhaes JM Silva JE Castro FP Labrincha JA. Kinetic study of the immobilization of galvanic sludge in clay-based matrix. J Hazard Mater 2005;121:69-78.

  • 12. Oreščanin V Mikelic L Lulić S Nad K Mikulić N Rubčić M Pavlović G. Purifi cation of electroplating waste waters utilizing waste by-product ferrous sulfate and wood fl y ash. J Environ Sci Health Part A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2004;39:2437-46.

  • 13. Oreščanin V Kopjar N Durgo K Garaj Vrhovac V Franekić Colić J Ramić S Nad K Valković V. Toxicological characterization of the new water cleaning product and its waste by-product. J Environ Sci Health Part A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2004;39:1281-94.

  • 14. Oreščanin V Kopjar N Durgo K Elez L Findri-Guštek S Franekić Colić J. Citotoxicity status of electroplating wastewater prior/after neutralization/purification with alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust. J Environ Sci Health Part A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2009;44:273-8.

  • 15. Durgo K Horvat T Oreščanin V Mikelić L Franekić Colić J Lulić S. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity study of waste and purified water samples from electroplating industries prepared by use of ferrous sulfate and wood fl y ash. J Environ Sci Health Part A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2005;40:949-57.

  • 16. Durgo K Oreščanin V Lulić S Kopjar N Želježić D Franekić Colić J. The assessment of genotoxic effects of wastewater from the fertiliser factory. J Appl Toxicol 2009;29:42-51.

  • 17. Horvat T Vidaković-Cifrek Z Oreščanin V Tkalec M Pevalek-Kozlina B. Toxicity assessment of heavy metal mixtures by Lemna minor L. Sci Total Environ 2007;384:229-38.

  • 18. Gajski G Oreščanin V Garaj Vrhovac V. Cytogenotoxicity of sewage sludge leachate before and after calcium oxide based solidification in human lymphocytes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2011;74:1408-15.

  • 19. Garaj Vrhovac V Oreščanin V Ruk D Gajski G. In vitro assessment of genotoxic effects of electric arc furnace dust on human lymphocytes using the alkaline comet assay. J Environ Sci Health Part A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2009;44:279-87.

  • 20. Oreščanin V Mikulić N Lovrenčić Mikelić I Posedi M Kampić Š Medunić G. The bulk composition and leaching properties of electroplating sludge prior/following the solidifi cation/stabilization by calcium oxide. J Environ Sci Health Part A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2009;44:1282-8.

  • 21. Oreščanin V Lovrenčić Mikelić I Mikelić L Lulić S. Applicability of MiniPal 4 compact EDXRF spectrometer for soil and sediment analysis. X-ray Spect 2008;37:508-11.

  • 22. Elez L Oreščanin V Sofi lić T Mikulić N Ruk D. Application of alkaline solid residue of electric arc furnace dust for neutralization/purifi cation of electroplating wastewaters. J Environ Sci Health Part A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2008;43:1417-23.

  • 23. Oreščanin V Lulić S Pavlović G Mikelić L. Granulometric and chemical composition of the Sava river sediments upstream and downstream of the Krsko nuclear power plant. Environ Geol 2004;46:605-14.

  • 24. Oreščanin V Tibljaš D Valković V. A study of coagulant production from red mud and its use for heavy metals removal. J Trace Microprobe Techn 2002;20:233-45.

  • 25. Pravilnik o načinima i uvjetima odlaganja otpada kategorijama i uvjetima rada za odlagališta otpada [Ordinance on the methods and conditions for the landfi ll of waste categories and operational requirements for waste landfi lls for landfi lling of inert waste in Croatian]. Narodne novine 117/2007.

  • 26. Lim S Jeon W Lee J Lee K Kim N. Engineering properties of water/wastewater-treatment sludge modifi ed by hydrated lime fl y ash and loess. Water Res 2002;36:4177-84.

  • 27. Rhew RD Barlaz MA. Effect of lime-stabilized sludge as landfill cover on refuse decomposition. J Environ Eng 1995:121:499-506.

  • 28. Spence RD Mattus AJ. Laboratory stabilizations/solidifi cation of tank sludges: MVST/BVEST. J Environ Manage 2004;70:189-202.

  • 29. Piyapanuwat R Asavapisit S. Performance of lime-BHA solidifi ed plating sludge in the presence of Na2SiO3 and Na2CO3. J Environ Manage 2011;92:2222-8.

  • 30. Singh TS Pant KK. Solidifi cation/stabilization of arsenic containing solid wastes using portland cement fl y ash and polymeric materials. J Hazard Mater 2006:131:29-36.

  • 31. Hale B Evans L Lambert R. Effects of cement or lime on Cd Co Cu Ni Pb Sb and Zn mobility in fi eld-contaminated and aged soils. J Hazard Mater 2012:199-200:119-27.

  • 32. Harrelkas F Azizi A Yaacoubi A Benhammou A Pons MN. Treatment of textile dye effluents using coagulationfl occulation coupled with membrane processes or adsorption on powdered activated carbon. Desalination 2009;235:330-9.

  • 33. Hai FI Yamamoto K Nakajima F Fukushi K. Removal of structurally different dyes in submerged membrane fungi reactor-Biosorption/PAC-adsorption membrane retention and biodegradation. J Membrane Sci 2008;325:395-403.

  • 34. Nicolet L Rott U. Recirculation of powdered activated carbon for the adsorption of dyes in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Sci Technol 1999;40:191-8.

  • 35. Dialynas E Diamadopoulos E. Integration of immersed membrane ultrafi ltration with coagulation and activated carbon adsorption for advanced treatment of municipal wastewater. Desalination 2008;230:113-27.

  • 36. Ozturk N Bektaş TE. Nitrate removal from aqueous solution by adsorption onto various materials. J Hazard Mater 2004;112:155-62.

  • 37. Patnukao P Kongsuwan A Pavasant P. Batch studies of adsorption of copper and lead on activated carbon from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn bark. J Environ Sci 2008;20:1028-34.

  • 38. Ndiba P Axe L Boonfueng T. Heavy metal immobilization through phosphate and thermal treatment of dredged sediments. Environ Sci Technol 2008;42:920-6.

  • 39. Ramaroson J Dirion J-L Nzihou A Depelsenaire G. Characterization and kinetics of surface area reduction during the calcination of dredged sediments. Powder Technol 2009;190:59-64.

  • 40. Yang J Mosby D. Field assessment of treatment effi cacy by three methods of phosphoric acid application in leadcontaminated urban soil. Sci Total Environ 2006;66:136-42.

  • 41. Zupančič M Bukovec N Milačič R Ščančar J. Comparison of various phosphate stabilisation agents for the immobilisation of Ni and Zn in sewage sludge. Water Air Soil Pollut 2004;156:57-69.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.436
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.606

CiteScore 2018: 1.53

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.358
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.608

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 275 167 9
PDF Downloads 91 58 3