Der p 1 is the main allergen of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which has routinely been detected in residential dust. However, the procedure for extracting Der p 1 from reservoir dust has not been well defi ned. The aim of this study was to compare Der p 1 mass fractions in dust extracts prepared using the following extraction buffers: phosphate (pH 7.4), borate (pH 8.0), and ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0), all with 0.05 % Tween 20. Twenty-eight dust samples were divided into three aliquots and each portion was extracted with one of the three buffers at room temperature. Der p 1 mass fractions were measured in a total of 84 dust extracts using the enzyme immunoassay (range: 0.1 μg g-1 to 7.53 μg g-1). Statistical methods including intraclass correlation showed a high agreement between Der p 1 mass fractions irrespective of the extracting medium. Our results suggest that all three buffers are suitable for the extraction of mite allergens and routine Der p 1 analysis in dust.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Wilson J, Dixon SL, Breysse P, Jacobs D, Adamkiewicz G, Chew GL, Dearborn D, Krieger J, Sandel M, Spanier A. Housing and allergens: A pooled analysis of nine US studies. Environ Res 2010;110:189-98.
2. Valero A, Serrano C. Are environmental controls effective for house-dust-mite allergies? Arch Bronconeumol 2004;40:389-91.
3. Custovic A, Taggart SC, Francis HC, Chapman MD, Woodcock A. Exposure to house dust mite allergens and the clinical activity of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;98:64-72.
4. Prester Lj. Arthropod allergens in urban homes. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2012;63(Suppl 1):47-56.
5. Macan J, Kanceljak-Macan B, Milković-Kraus S. Pyroglyphid mites as a source of work-related allergens. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2012;63(Suppl 1):57-66.
6. Luczynska CL, Arruda LK, Platts-Mills TAE, Miller JD, Lopez M, Chapman MD. A two-site monoclonal antibody ELISA for the quantifi cation of the major spp 1989;118:227-35.
7. Pate AD, Hamilton RG, Ashley PJ, Zeldin DC, Halsey JF. Profi ciency testing of allergen measurements in residential dust. J Allergy Clin Imunol 2005;116:844-50.
8. Siebers R, Luey B, Crane J, Fitzharris P. The effects of temperature and buffer on the extraction of Der p 1 from dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:580.
9. Siebers R, Rains N, Fitzharris P, Crane J. The worldwide external Der p 1 quality control program: results from round three. In: Siebers R, Fitzharris P, Cunningham M, Crane J, editors. Mites, asthma and domestic design III. Wellington: Wellington Asthma Research Group; 1997. p. 21-6.
10. Prester Lj, Brčić Karačonji I, Macan J. Determination of mite allergens in house dust using the enzyme immunoassay. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2007;58:413-9.
12. McGraw KO, Wong SP. Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coeffi cients. Psychol Meth 1996;1:30-46.
13. Zock JP, Heinrich J, Jarvis D, Verlato G, Norback D, Plana E, Sunyer J, Chinn S, Olivieri M, Soon A, Villani S, Ponzio M, Dahlman-Hoglund A, Svanes C, Luczynska C. Distribution and determinants of house dust mite allergens in Europe: The European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;118:682-90.
14. Baxi SN, Phipatanakul W. The role of allergen exposure and avoidance in asthma. Adolesc Med State Art Rev 2010;21:57-71.
15. Martin IR, Wickens K, Patchett K, Kent R, Fitzharris P, Siebers R, Lewis S, Crane J, Holbrook N, Town GI, Smith S. Cat allergen levels in public places in New Zealand. NZ Med J 1998;111:356-8.
16. Douwes J, Versloot P, Hollander A, Heederik D, Doekes G. Infl uence of various dust sampling and extraction methods on the measurement of airborne endotoxin. Appl Environ Microbiol 1995;61:1763-9.
17. Spaan S, Doekes G, Heederik D, Thorne PS, Wouters IM. Effect of extraction and assay media on analysis of airborne endotoxin. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008;74:3804-11.
18. Liebers V, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Linsel G, Goldscheid N, Duser M, Stubel H, Bruning Th. Evaluation of quantification methods of occupational endotoxin exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health Part A 2007;70:1798-805.
19. CEN 2000. 14031. Workplace atmosphere: determination of airborne endotoxins. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium.
20. Mason K, Crane J, Fitzharris P, Siebers R. The effect of sieving on Der p 1 levels. Allergy 2001;56:1012-3.
21. Fahlbusch B, Koch A, Douwes J, Bischof W, Gehring U, Richter K, Wichmann HE, Heinrich J. The effect of storage on allergen and microbial agent levels in frozen house dust. Allergy 2003;58:150-3.
22. Filep S, Tsay A, Vailes L, Gadermaier G, Ferreira F, Matsui E, King EM, Chapman MD. A multi-allergen standard for the calibration of immunoassays: CREATE principles applied to eight purifi ed allergens. Allergy 2012;67:235-41.
23. Raja S, Xu Y, Ferro AR, Jaques PA, Hopke PK. Resuspension of indoor aeroallergens and relationship to lung infl ammation in asthmatic children. Environ Int 2010;36:8-14.
24. Arbes SJ, Sever M, Mehta J, Collette N, Thomas B, Zeldin DC. Exposure to indoor allergens in day-care facilities: Results from 2 North Carolina counties. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;116:133-9.
25. Nam HS, Siebers R, Lee SH, Park JS, Kim YB, Choi YJ, Lee SH, Crane J. House dust mite allergens in domestic homes in Cheonan, Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2008;46:187-9.
26. Adhikari A, Lewis JS, Reponen T, DeGrasse EC, Grimsley LF, Chew GL, Iossifova Y, Grinshpun SA. Exposure matrices of endotoxin, (1a†’3)-I˛-D-glucan, fungi, and dust mite allergens in fl ood-affected homes of New Orleans. Sci Total Environ 2010;408:5489-98.
27. Earle CD, King EM, Tsay A, Pittman K, Saric B, Vailes L, Godbout R, Oliver KG, Chapman MD. High-throughput fl uorescent multiplex array for indoor allergen exposure assessment. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:428-33.
28. Kim JL, Elfman L, NorbĂ.ck D. Respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergen levels in schools-comparison between Korea and Sweden. Indoor Air 2007;17:122-9.
29. Leung R, Lam CWK, Chan A, Lee M, Chan HIS, Pang SW, Lai CKW. Indoor environment of residential homes in Hong Kong-relevance to asthma and allergic disease. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:585-90.
30. Mitakakis TZ, Mahmic A, Educ GD, Tovey ER. Comparison of vacuuming procedures for reservoir dust mite allergen on carpeted fl oors. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:122-4.
31. Nishioka K, Yasueda H, Saito H. Preventive effect of bedding encasement with microfi ne fi bres on mite sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:28-32.
32. Kitch BT, Chew G, Burge HA, Muilenberg mL, Weiss ST, Platts-Mills TAE, O’Connor G, Gold DR. Socioeconomic predictors of high allergen levels in homes in the greater Boston area. Environ Health Perspect 2000;108:301-7.
33. Cohn RD, Arbes SJ, Jaramillo R, Reid LH, Zeldin DC. National prevalence and exposure risk for cockroach allergen in U.S. households. Environ Health Perspect 2006;114:522-6.
34. Stelmach I, Jerzynska J, Stelmach W, Majak P, Chew G, Gorski P, Kuna P. Cockroach allergy and exposure to cockroach allergen in Polish children with asthma. Allergy 2002;57:701-5.
35. Peters JL, Levy JI, Rogers CA, Burge HA, Spengler JD. Determinants of allergen concentrations in apartments of asthmatic children living in public housing. J Urban Health 2007;84:185-97.
36. Matsui EC, Wood RA, Rand C, Kanchanaraksa S, Swartz L, Curtin-Bronsan J, Eggleston PA. Cockroach allergen exposure and sensitization in suburban middle-class children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;112:87-92.
37. Sarpong SB, Wood RA, Karrison T, Eggleston PA. Cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) in school dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:486-92.
38. Hill DJ, Thompson PJ, Stewart GA, Carlin JB, Nolan TM, Kemp AS, Hosking CS. The Melburne house dust mite study: eliminating house dust mites in the domestic environment. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:323-9.
39. Perfetti L, Ferrari M, Galdi E, Pozzi V, Cottica D, Grignani E, Minoia C, Moscato G. House dust mites (Dep p1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1 ) and cockroach (Bla g 2) allergens in indoor work-places (offices and archives). Sci Total Environ 2004;328:15-21.