Shiftwork Problems

Open access

Problemi rada u smjenama

U radu se raspravlja o negativnim utjecajima smjenskog rada koji su klasificirani u četiri kategorije učinaka: na biološke funkcije, radnu efikasnost, društvene / obiteljske aspekte života te na zdravlje. Dan je sustavni pregled dosadašnjih istraživanja zdravstvenih problema smjenskih radnika u čijoj je osnovi narušavanje cirkadijurnih ritmova organizma koju nameće smjenski / noćni rad. Zdravstveni problemi koji se dovode u vezu sa smjenskim radom su ovi: problemi sa spavanjem, gastrointestinalne i kardiovaskularne bolesti, karcinom, problemi s reproduktivnim funkcijama žena te lošije psihičko zdravlje.

U radu se također raspravlja o toleranciji smjenskog rada. Pri tome je kao teoretski okvir povezanosti smjenskog rada i negativnih zdravstvenih posljedica rabljen procesni model koji su postavili Smith i suradnici 1999. Poseban naglasak stavljen je na individualne i organizacijske faktore o kojima ovisi mogućnost prilagodbe na smjenski rad te tolerancija takvog rada. Značajni prediktori tolerancije smjenskog rada su: dob, spol, jutarnjost-večernjost, rigidnost-fleksibilnost u navikama spavanja, obiteljska situacija, higijena spavanja te zdrava prehrana. S obzirom na rezultate istraživanja koji upućuju na povezanost nekih karakteristika organizacije smjenskog rada s tolerancijom prema smjenskom radu, kao što su: broj radnih smjena i trajanje smjene, broj sukcesivnih noćnih smjena, regularnost smjena, brzina i smjer rotacije smjena, preporučene su intervencijske strategije u organizaciji smjenskog rada.

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