Determination of Aspergillus Fumigatus Allergen 1 in Poultry Farms Using the Enzyme Immunoassay

Open access

Determination of Aspergillus Fumigatus Allergen 1 in Poultry Farms Using the Enzyme Immunoassay

Poultry farms contain high levels of allergenic fungi, and Aspergillus spp. is the most common genus of moulds. Aspergillus fumigatus antigens are responsible for the development of several respiratory diseases including asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Asp f 1, a major allergen of Asperillus fumigatus in 37 indoor dust samples collected from four poultry farms in a rural area of the Zagreb County (Croatia) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. More than 62 % of dust samples had detectable Asp f 1 levels (limit of detection 3.6 ng g-1). The overall mean Asp f 1 level was 17.9 ng g-1 [range (3.8 to 72.4) ng g-1]. Satisfactory results were obtained for analytical within-run imprecision (6.7 %), between-run imprecision (10.5 %), and accuracy (91 % to 115 %). Microclimate parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, and velocity) were within the recommended ranges in all poultry farms. This study has shown that Asp f 1 settles on dust at poultry farms and that occupational exposure to this allergen deserves monitoring in livestock buildings.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Benndorf D Müller A Bock K Manuwald O Herbarth O von Bergen M. Identification of spore allergens from the indoor mould Aspergillus versicolor. Allergy 2008;63:454-60.

  • Clark S Rylander R Larsson L. Airborne bacteria endotoxin and fungi in dust in poultry and swine confinement buildings. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1983;44:537-41.

  • Hartung J. Emissionen luftgetragener Stoffe aus Nutztierställen [Emissions of airborne substances from stalls of domestic animals in German]. Pneumologie 1992;46:196-202.

  • Jo WK Kang JH. Exposure levels of airborne bacteria and fungi in Korean swine and poultry sheds. Arch Environ Occup Health 2005;60:140-6.

  • Institute of Medicine (IOM). Damp Indoor Spaces and Health. Washington (DC): The National Academies Press; 2004.

  • Górny RL Reponen T Willeke K Schmechel D Robine E Boissier M Grinshpun A. Fungal fragments as indoor air biocontaminants. Appl Environ Microbiol 2002;68:3522-31.

  • Green BJ Tovey ER Sercombe JK Blachere FM Beezhold DH Schmechel D. Airborne fungal fragments and allergenicity. Med Mycol 2006;44(Suppl 1):S245-55.

  • Radon K Danuser B Iversen M Jörres R Monso E Opravil U Weber C Donham KJ Nowak D. Respiratory symptoms in European animal farmers. Eur Respir J 2001;17:747-54.

  • Omland. Exposure and respiratory health in farming in temperate zones - a review of the literature. Ann Agric Environ Med 2002;9:119-36.

  • Rylander R Carvalheiro MF. Airways inflammation among workers in poultry houses. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2006;79:487-90.

  • Derksen FJ Robinson N Scott JS Stick JA. Aerosolised Micropolyspora faeni antigen as a cause of pulmonary dysfunction in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Am J Vet Res 1988;49:933-8.

  • McGorum BC Dixon P M Halliwell RE. Responses of horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inhalation challenges with mould antigens. Equine Vet J 1993;25:261-7.

  • Latgé JP. Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999;2:310-50.

  • Kurup VP Banerjee B. Fungal allergens and peptide epitopes. Peptides 2000;21:589-99.

  • Arruda LK Platts-Mills TAE Fox JW Chapman MD. Aspergillus fumigatus allergen I a major IgE-binding protein is a member of the mitogillin family of cytotoxins. J Exp Med 1990;172:1529-32.

  • Latgé JP Moutaouakil M Debeaupuis JP Bouchara JP Haynes K Prévost MC. The 18-kilodalton antigen secreted by Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect Immun 1991;59:2586-94.

  • Arruda LK Mann BJ Chapman MD. Selective expression of a major allergen and cytotoxin Asp f 1 in Aspergillus fumigatus. Implications for the immunopathogenesis of Aspergillus related diseases. J Immunol 1992;149:3354-9.

  • Sporik RB Arruda LK Woodfolk J Chapman MD Platts-Mills TAE. Environmental exposure to Aspergillus fumigatus allergen (Asp f I). Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:326-31.

  • Green BJ Mitakakis TZ Tovey ER. Allergen detection from 11 fungal species before and after germination. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:285-9.

  • Vučemilo M Matković K Vinković B Macan J Varnai VM Prester Lj Granić K Orct T. Effect of microclimate on the airborne dust and endotoxin concentration in a broiler house. Czeh J Anim Sci 2008;53:83-9.

  • Prester Lj Macan J. Determination of Alt a 1 (Alternaria alternata) in poultry farms and a sawmill using ELISA. Medical Mycol 2010;48:298-302. DOI: 10.1080/136937809031.15402.

  • Portnoy JM Barnes CS Kennedy K. Sampling for indoor fungi. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113:189-98.

  • Green BJ Schmechel D Sercombe JK Tovey ER. Enumeration and detection of aerosolized Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum conidia and hyphae using a novel double immunostaining technique. J Immunol Methods 2005;307:127-34.

  • Dillon KH Boling DK Miller JD. Comparison of detection methods for Aspergillus fumigatus in environmental air samples in an occupational environment. J Occup Environ Hyg 2007;4:509-13.

  • Chapman MD Tsay A Vailes LD. Home allergen monitoring and control-improving clinical practice and patient benefits. Allergy 2001;56:604-10.

  • Vailes L Sridhara S Cromwell O Weber B Breitenbach M Chapman M. Quantitation of the major fungal allergens Alt a 1 and Asp f 1 in commercial allergenic products. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107:641-6.

  • Prester Lj Brčić Karačonji I Macan J. Determination of mite allergens in house dust using the enzyme immunoassay. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 2007;58:413-9.

  • Šegvić Klarić M Pepeljnjak S. A year-round aeromycological study in Zagreb area Croatia. Ann Agric Environ Med 2006;13:55-64.

  • Chew GL Rogers C Burge HA Muilenberg ML Gold DR. Dustborne and airborne fungal propagules represent a different spectrum of fungi with differing relations to home characteristics. Allergy 2003;58:13-20.

  • Pasanen P Korpi A Kalliokoski P Pasanen AL. Growth and volatile metabolite production of Aspergillus versicolor in house dust. Environ Int 1997;23:425-32.

  • Peat JK Dickerson J Li J. Effects of damp and mould in the home on respiratory health: a review of the literature. Allergy 1998;53:120-8.

  • Mohr AJ. Microorganisms fate and transport. In: Hurst CJ Crawford RL Knudsen G McInerney M Stetzenbach LD editors. Manual of environmental microbiology. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 2002. p. 827-38.

  • Harry EG. Air pollution in farm buildings and methods of control: a review. Avian Pathol 1978;7:441-54.

  • Ellen HH Bottcher RW von Wachenfelt E Takai H. Dust levels and control methods in poultry houses. J Agric Safety Health 2000;6:275-82.

  • Matković K Vučemilo M Vinković B Šeol B Pavičić Ž Tofant A. Effect of microclimate on bacterial count and airborne emission from dairy barns on the environment. Ann Agric Environ Med 2006;13:349-54.

  • Dharmage S Bailey M Raven J Abeyawickrama K Cao D Guest D Rolland J Forbes A Thien F Abramson M Walters EH. Mouldy houses influence symptoms of asthma among atopic individuals. Clin Exp Allergy 2002;32:714-20.

  • Fischer G Dott W. Relevance of airborne fungi and their secondary metabolites for environmental occupational and indoor hygiene. Arch Microbiol 2003;179:75-82.

  • Martyny JW Harbeck RJ Pacheco K Barker EA Sills M Silveira L Arbuckle S Newman L. Aerosolized sodium hypochlorite inhibits viability and allergenicity of mold on building materials. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;116:630-5.

  • Lang L. Danger in the dust. Environ Health Perspect 1996;104:26-30.

  • Ryan TJ Whitehead LW Connor TH Burau KD. Survey of the Asp f 1 allergen in office environments. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 2001;16:679-84.

  • Jacob B Ritz B Gehring U Koch A Bischof W Wichmann HE Heinrich J. Indoor exposure to mold and allergic sensitization. Environ Health Perspect 2002;110:647-53.

  • Andersson MA Nikulin M Koljalg U Andersson MC Rainey F Reijula K Hintikka E Salkinoja-Salonen M. Bacteria molds and toxins in water-damaged building materials. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997;63:387-93.

  • Dreborg S. Mite allergens. Collection determination expression of results and risk levels for sensitization and symptom induction. Allergy 1998;53(48 Suppl):88-91.

  • Salo PM Arbes SJ Crockett PW Thorne PS Cohn RD Zeldin DC. Exposure to multiple indoor allergens in US homes and its relationship to asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121:678-84.

  • Schmechel D Simpson JP Beezhold D Lewis DM. The development of species-specific immunodiagnostics for Stachybotrys chartarum: The role of cross-reactivity. J Immunol Methods 2006;309:150-9.

  • Seedorf J Hartung J Schröder M Linkert KH Phillips VR Holden MR Sneath RW Short JL White RP Pedersen S Tatai H Johnsen JO Metz JHH Groot Koerkamp PWG Uenk GH Wathes CM. Concentrations and emissions of airborne endotoxins and microorganisms in livestock buildings in Northern Europe. J Agric Engin Res 1998;70:97-107.

  • Pirie RS Dixon PM McGorum BC. Endotoxin contamination contributes to the pulmonary inflammatory and functional response to Aspergillus fumigatus extract inhalation in heaves horses. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33:1289-96.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1.436
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.606

CiteScore 2018: 1.53

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.358
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.608

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 252 86 2
PDF Downloads 85 45 1