Sex Hormones and Cognitive Functioning of Women

Open access

Spolni hormoni i kognitivno funkcioniranje žena

U radu se raspravlja o organizirajućim i aktivirajućim učincima spolnih hormona te o njihovu utjecaju na kognitivno funkcioniranje. Dosadašnja su istraživanja pokazala spolne razlike u nekim specifičnim kognitivnim sposobnostima. Žene su u prosjeku bolje u verbalnoj fluentnosti, perceptivnoj brzini i točnosti, kao i finijoj motorici, dok su muškarci u prosjeku bolji u prostornim i matematičkim sposobnostima. Ove razlike u kognitivnom funkcioniranju dovode se u vezu s izlaganjem mozga fetusa različitim razinama spolnih hormona tijekom prenatalnog života. Studije na skupinama rođenim s genskim poremećajima, kao što su sindrom neosjetljivosti na androgene, kongenitalna adrenalna hiperplazija i Turnerov sindrom također upućuju na organizirajuće učinke spolnih hormona na kognitivno funkcioniranje.

Nadalje, dosadašnja istraživanja pokazuju da povišene razine ženskih spolnih hormona u kasnoj folikularnoj i/ili lutealnoj fazi menstrualnog ciklusa potenciraju tipičan ženski kognitivni obrazac funkcioniranja, koji karakterizira veća učinkovitost u zadacima koje u prosjeku bolje rješavaju žene. Niske pak razine ovih hormona, koje karakteriziraju menstrualnu fazu ciklusa, potenciraju tipičan muški obrazac funkcioniranja, koji uključuje bolju učinkovitost u zadacima koje u prosjeku bolje rješavaju muškarci.

U radu se također raspravlja o metodološkim razlikama u dosadašnjim istraživanjima organizirajućih i aktivirajućih učinaka spolnih hormona na kognitivno funkcioniranje, kao i o smjernicama za buduća istraživanja.

Maylor EA, Reimers S, Choi J, Collaer ML, Peters M, Silverman I. Gender and sexual orientation differences in cognition across adulthood: age is kinder to women than to men regardless of sexual orientation. Arch Sex Behav 2007;36:235-49.

Kimura D. Sex, sexual orientation and sex hormones influence human cognitive function. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1996;6:259-63.

Sherwin BB. Estrogen and cognitive functioning in women. Endocr Rev 2003;24:133-51.

Silverman I, Choi J, Peters M. The Hunter-Gatherer theory of sex differences in spatial abilities: Data from 40 countries. Arch Sex Behav 2007;36:261-8.

Tadinac M, Hromatko I. Evolucijska psihologija i spolne razlike. U: Hrgović J, Polšek D, urednici. Evolucija društvenosti. Zagreb: Naklada Jesenski i Turk; 2004. str.175-91.

Pinel JPJ. Biološka psihologija. Jastrebarsko: Naklada Slap; 2002.

Cohen-Bendahan CC, Van de Beck C, Berenbaum SA. Prenatal sex hormones effects on child and adults sex-typed behaviour: methods and findings. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2005;29:353-84.

Bao AM, Swaab DF. Gender difference in age-related number of corticotropin-releasing hormone-expressing neurons in the human hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the role of sex hormones. Neuroendocrinology 2007;85:27-36.

Hofman MA, Swaab DE. The sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area in the human brain: a comparative morphometric study. J Anat 1989;164:55-72.

Gooren LJG, Kruijver FPM. Androgens and male behaviour. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002;198:31-40.

Goldstein JM, Jerram M, Poldrack R, Anagnoson R, Breiter HC, Makris N, Goodman JM, Tsuang MT, Seidman LJ. Sex differences in prefrontal cortical brain activity during fMRI of auditory verbal working memory. Neuropsychology 2005;19:509-19.

Imperato-McGinley J, Pichardo M, Gautier T, Voyer D, Bryden MP. Cognitive abilities in androgen-insensitive subjects: comparison with control males and females from the same kindred. Clin Endocrinol 1991;34:341-7.

Puts DA, McDaniel MA, Jordan CL, Breedlove SM. Spatial ability and prenatal androgens: meta-analyses of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and digit ratio (2D-4D) studies. Arch Sex Behav 2008;37:100-11.

Ross J, Roeltgen D, Zinn A. Cognition and the sex chromosomes: studies in Turner syndrome. Horm Res 2006;65:47-56.

Ross JL, Roeltgen D, Feuillan P, Kushner H, Cutler GB Jr. Use of estrogen in young girls with Turner syndrome: effects on memory. Neurology 2000;54:164-70.

Hampson E. Spatial cognition in humans: possible modulation by androgens and estrogens. J Psychiatry Neurosci 1995;20:397-404.

Hampson E, Kimura D. Reciprocal effects of hormonal fluctuations on human motor and perceptual-spatial skills. Behav Neurosci 1988;102:456-9.

Phillips K, Silverman I. Differences in the relationship of menstrual cycle phase to spatial performance on two- and three-dimensional tasks. Horm Behav 1997;32:167-75.

Fehring RJ, Schneider M, Raviele K. Variability in the phases of the menstrual cycle. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2005;35:376-84.

Maki PM, Rich JB, Rosenbaum RS. Implicit memory varies across the menstrual cycle: estrogen effects in young women. Neuropsychologia 2002;40:518-29.

Rosenberg L, Park S. Verbal and spatial functions across the menstrual cycle in healthy young women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2002;27:835-41.

Hromatko I. Utjecaj estrogena na shvaćanje prostornih odnosa, perceptivnu brzinu i fine motoričke sposobnosti. Suvremena psihologija 2001;4:61-71.

Šimić N, Manenica I. Promjene nekih psihofizioloških varijabli tijekom menstrualnog ciklusa. Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru 1998;36:79-90.

Jennings PJ, Janowsky JS, Orwoll E. Estrogen and sequential movement. Behav Neurosci 1998;112:154-9.

Hampson E, Finestone JM, Levy N. Menstrual cycle effects on perceptual closure mediate changes in performance on a fragmented objects test of implicit memory. Brain Cogn 2005;57:107-10.

Hampson E. Variations in sex-related cognitive abilities across the menstrual cycle. Brain Cogn 1990;14:26-43.

Symonds CS, Gallagher P, Thompson JM, Young AH. Effects of the menstrual cycle on mood, neurocognitive and neuroendocrine function in healthy premenopausal women. Psychol Med 2004;34:93-102.

Mead LA, Hampson E. Turning bias in humans is influenced by phase of the menstrual cycle. Horm Behav 1997;31:65-74.

Kimura D, Hampson E. Cognitive pattern in men and women is influenced by fluctuations in sex hormones. Curr Direct Psychol Sci 1994;3:57-61.

Cooke BM, Breedlove SM, Jordan CL. Both estrogen and androgen receptors contribute to testosterone-induced changes in the morphology of the medial amygdala and sexual arousal in male rats. Horm Behav 2003;43:336-46.

Hausmann M, Tegenthoff M, Sanger J, Janssen F, Gunturkun O, Schwenkreis P. Transcallosal inhibition across the menstrual cycle: a TMS study. Clin Neurophysiol 2006;117:26-32.

Hausmann M, Güntürkün O. Steroid fluctuations modify functional cerebral asymmetries: the hypothesis of progesterone-mediated interhemispheric decoupling. Neuropsychologia 2000;38:1362-74.

Konrad C, Engelien A, Schoning S, Zwitserlood P, Jansen A, Pletziger E, Beizai P, Kersting A, Ohrmann P, Luders E, Greb RR, Heidel W, Arolt V, Kugel H. The functional anatomy of semantic retrieval is influenced by gender, menstrual cycle an sex hormones. J Neural Transm 2008;115:1327-37.

Hausmann M, Slabbekoorn D, Van Goozen SHM, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Güntrürkün O. Sex hormones affect spatial abilities during the menstrual cycle. Behav Neurosci 2000;114:1245-50.

Phillips SM, Sherwin BB. Effects of estrogen on memory function in menopausal women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1992;17:485-95.

Sherwin BB. The critical period hypothesis: can it explain discrepancies in the oestrogen-cognition literature? J Neuroendocrinol 2006;19:77-81.

Slabbekorn D, Van Goozen SHM, Megens J, Gooren JLG, Cohen-Kettenis PT. Activating effects of cross-sex hormones on cognitive functioning: a study of short-term and long-term hormone effects in transsexuals. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1999;24:423-47.

Hulshoff HE, Cohen-Kettenis PT, Van Haren NEM, Peper JS, Brans RGH, Cahn W, Schnack HG, Gooren LJG, Kahn RS. Changing your sex changes your brain: influences of testosterone and estrogen on adult human brain structure. Eur J Endocrinol 2006;155(Suppl 1):S107-14.

Judaš M, Kostović I. Temelji neuroznanosti [pristup 20. srpnja 2007.]. Dostupno na http://hiim.hr/nastava/onlineudžbenik

Osterlund MK, Hurd YL. Estrogen receptors in the human forebrain and the relation to neuropsychiatric disorders. Prog Neurobiol 2001;64:251-67.

Seeman M. Psychopathology in women and men: focus on female hormones. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154:1641-7.

Smith MJ, Keel BA, Greenberg BD, Adams BA, Schmidt PJ, Rubinow DA, Wassermann EM. Menstrual cycle effects on cortical excitability. Neurology 1999;53:2069-72.

Sherwin BB. Estrogen and mood in women. Endocrinologist 2005;15:180-5.

Wirth MM, Meier E, Fredrickson BL, Schultheiss OC. Relationship between salivary cortisol and progesterone levels in humans. Biol Psychol 2007;74:104-7.

Tadinac M, Hromatko I. Uvod u biološke osnove doživljavanja i ponašanja. Zagreb: FF press; 2006.

Epperson CN, Haga K, Mason GF, Sellers E, Gueorguieva R, Zhang W, Weiss E, Rothman DL, Krystal JH. Cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid levels across the menstrual cycle in healthy women and those with premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:851-8.

Proroković A, Gregov Lj. The relationship between some psychophysiological changes during the menstrual cycle. Medica Jadertina 1997;1:5-17.

Asso D, Braier JR. Changes with the menstrual cycle in psychophysiological and self-report measures of activation. Biol Psychol 1982;15:95-107.

Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.117
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.335



CiteScore 2017: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.341
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.494

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 105 105 17
PDF Downloads 38 38 10