Carbon in Particulate Matter in the air

Open access

Ugljik u lebdećim česticama u zraku

Ugljik (lat. carbo) u elementarnom stanju pojavljuje se kao dijamant, grafit, fuleren i crni amorfni ugljik. Crni amorfni ugljik nalazi se i u lebdećim česticama u atmosferi, a glavni oblici su: elementarni (EC), organski (OC) i karbonatni (CC) ugljik. Atmosferske čestice ugljika emitiraju se iz više od 70 različitih vrsta izvora onečišćenja zraka. EC je primarni onečišćivač koji nastaje nepotpunim izgaranjem fosilnih i biljnih goriva, a pojavljuje se još i kao čestice čađe te ga nalazimo i u sedimentima, tlima i ledu. Mnoga kvantitativna određivanja EC temelje se na njegovoj kemijskoj inertnosti, termičkoj stabilnosti i optičkim svojstvima. Organski spojevi kao što su policiklički aromatski ugljikovodici (PAU), poliklorirani bifenili (PCB), poliklorirani dibenzo-p-dioksini i furani, polibromirani difenileteri te druga organska onečišćenja nastaju procesima izgaranja i stvaranja sekundarnih organskih aerosola, a ubrajaju se u organski ugljik (OC).

Svrha je članka opisati različite oblike ugljika u lebdećim česticama u zraku, njihov negativni učinak na zdravlje ljudi, klimu i atmosferu te opisati metode za njihovo određivanje.

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