Adverse Effects in Workers Exposed to Inorganic Lead

Open access

Adverse Effects in Workers Exposed to Inorganic Lead

This paper describes a retrospective cohort study comparing 60 workers occupationally exposed to inorganic lead and 60 matched controls. All subjects were assessed using data obtained from a specially designed Questionnaire for lead exposure and toxic effects assessment, physical examination, spirometry, ECG, and laboratory tests including blood lead level (BLL) and biomarkers of lead toxic effects. Muscle pain, droopiness, and work-related nasal symptoms were significantly more frequent in lead workers. The prevalence of lung symptoms was higher in lead workers than in controls, but not significantly (20 % vs. 6.6 %, respectively). Mean values of BLL and δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were significantly higher in lead workers. The activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in lead workers was significantly lower than in controls. Abnormal of BLL, ALAD, and ALA were more frequent in lead workers, with statistical difference for BLL and ALAD. Inverse correlation was found between BLL and ALAD, and positive correlation between BLL and age, years of employment, and years of exposure. Inverse correlation was found between ALAD and age, years of employment, years of exposure, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and years of alcohol consumption. Changes in spirometry correlated inversely with BLL. A positive correlation was found between BLL and erythrocyte count and haemoglobin concentration, whereas it was inverse for ALAD and haemoglobin concentration. A significant difference was found for BLL and ALAD, with a very high odds ratio (14.64 and 7.23, respectively) and high relative risk (4.18 and 3.08, respectively). Our data have confirmed the association between occupational lead exposure and deviation in specific biological markers of lead effect and between the role of occupational exposure in the development of adverse effects.

England JM, Rowan RM, Van Assendelft OW, Bull BS, Coulter WH, Fujimoto K, Groner W, Van Hove I, Jones AR, Kanter RJ, Klee GG, Koepke JA, Lewis SM, D'Onofrio G, Tatsumi N Proposed reference method for reticulocyte counting based on the determination of the reticulocyte to red cell ratio. The Expert Panel on Cytometry of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology. Clin Lab Haematol 1998;20:77-9.

Tasevski S, Velkov S, Kostoski D Determination of basophil punctuated erythrocytes count as a diagnostic method for occupational saturnism. Laboratory 2002;4:13-6.

Frank RS, Wyatt JL Method and apparatus for determination of hemoglobin content of individual red blood cells 1997 [displayed 12 November 2007]. Available at http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5686309.html

Ost V, Neukammer J, Rinneberg H Flow cytometric differentiation of erythrocytes and leukocytes in dilute whole blood by light scattering. Cytometry 1998;32:191-7.

Bárány E, Bergdahl IA, Bratteby LE, Lundh T, Samuelson G, Schütz A, Skerfving S, Oskarsson A Trace elements in blood and serum of Swedish adolescents: relation to gender, age, residential area, and socioeconomic status. Environ Res 2002;89:72-84.

Sirivarasi J, Kaorjaren S, Wananukul W, Srisomerg P Non-occupational determinants of cadmium and lead in blood and urine among a general population in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2002;33:180-7.

Szymik E The fate of children from Piekary Slaskie with elevated lead concentration in blood. Wiad Lek 2002;55:72-80.

Becker K, Kaus S, Krause C, Lepom P, Schulz C, Seiwert M, Seifert B German Environmental Survey 1998 (GerEs III): environmental pollutants in blood of the German population. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2002;205:297-308.

Apostoli P, Baj A, Bavazzano P, Ganzi A, Neri G, Ronchi A, Soleo L, Di LL, Spinelli P, Valente T, Minoia C Blood lead reference values: the results of an Italian polycentric study. Sci Total Environ 2002;287:1-11.

Battistuzzi G, Petrucci R, Silvagni L, Urbani FR, Caiola S δ-Aminolevulinate dehydrase: a new genetic polymorphism in man. Ann Hum Genet 1981;45:223-9.

Ziemsen B, Angerer J, Lehnert G, Benkmann HG, Goedde HW Polymorphism of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in lead-exposed workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1986;58:245-7.

Wetmur JG Influence of the common human δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase polymorphism on lead body burden. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102(Suppl 3):215-9.

Telišman S, Keršanc A, Prpić-Majić D. The relevance of arguments for excluding ALAD from the recommended biological limit values in occupational exposure to inorganic lead (WHO 1980). Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1982;50:397-412.

Doss M, Laubenthal F, Stoeppler M Lead poisoning in inherited δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1984;54:55-63.

Telišman S, Prpić-Majić D, Kežić S. In vivo study on lead and alcohol interaction and the inhibition of erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in man. Scand J Work Environ Health 1984;10:239-44.

Newton D, Pickford CJ, Chamberlain AC, Sherlock JC, Hislop JS Elevation of lead in human blood from its controlled ingestion in beer. Hum Exp Toxicol 1992;11:3-9.

Žuškin E Lung function tests. In: Gamulin S, Marušič M, Krvavica S, editors. Pathophysiology. Third edition. Zagreb: Medicinska naklada; 1995. p. 656-9.

Rastogi SK, Gupta BN, Husain T, Mathur N, Srivastava S Spirometric abnormalities among welders. Environ Res 1991;56:15-24.

Goyer RA Toxic effects of metals. In: Klaassen CD, editor. Casarett and Doull's toxicology: the basic science of poisons. 5th ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Book Company; 1996. p. 691-736.

Kuo HW, Hsiao TY, Lai JS Immunological effects of long-term lead exposure among Taiwanese workers. Arch Toxicol 2001;75:569-73.

Pocock SJ, Shaper AG, Ashby DT, Whitehead TP Blood lead concentration, blood pressure, and renal function. Br Med J1984;289:872-4.

Morris C, McCarron DA, Benett WM Low-level lead exposure blood pressure, and calcium metabolism. Am J Kidney Dis 1990;15:568-74.

Bergdahl IA Lead-binding proteins - a way to understand lead toxicity? Analusis Magazine 1998;26: M81-5.

Isjanovska R Epidemiološko proučuvanje na toksičnite efekti na olovoto i negovite sodinenija pri profesionalna ekspozicija [Epidemiologic research of the toxic effects of lead and its compounds in the terms of occupational exposure, in Macedonian]. [PhD thesis]. Skopje: Medical Faculty, University "Sts. Cyril and Methodius" Skopje; 1999.

Vidaković A. Lead. In: Vidaković A, editor. Occupational toxicology. Belgrade: Society of Toxicologists of Yugoslavia; 2000. p. 316-29.

Hernandez-Avila M, Cortez-Lugo M, Munoz I, Tellez MM, Rojo S Lead exposure in developing countries. Studies and findings 1999 [displayed 10 November 2007]. Available at http://www.leadpoison.net/general.htm

Needleman LH Clamped in a straitjacket: The insertion of lead into gasoline. Environ Res 1997;74:95-103.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Air Quality Criteria for Lead. Washington (DC): EPA; 1986.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Lead effects on cardiovascular function, early development, and stature: an addendum to EPA Air Quality Criteria for Lead (1986). In: Air Quality Criteria for Lead. Washington (DC): EPA; 1986.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of lead and lead compounds. Washington (DC): EPA; 1989.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Lead. Update. Prepared by Clement International Corporation under contract No. 205-88-0608 for ATSDR. Atlanta (GA): U.S. Public Health Service; 1993.

Sussel A, editor. Protecting workers exposed to leadbased paint hazards: a report to Congress. Washington (DC): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1987. [displayed 10 November 2007]. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/Niosh/98-112.html

Sakai T Biomarkers of lead exposure. Industrial Health 2000;38:127-42.

Mahaffey K, McKinney J, Reigart JR Lead and compounds. In: Lippmann M, editor. Environmental toxicants, human exposures and their health effects. 2nd ed. New York (NY): John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; 2000. p. 481-521.

McElvaine MD, Orbach HG, Binder S, Blanksma LA, Maes EF, Krieg RM Evaluation of the erythrocyte protoporphyrin test as a screen for elevated blood lead levels. J Pediatr 1991;119:548-50.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Public health statement for lead. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; 1997.

U.S. Food and Drug Agency (FDA). Provisional Tolerable Exposure Levels for Lead (Memorandum). Rockville (MD): US Public Health Service, Contaminants Team HFF-156; 1990.

Kappas A, Sassa S, Galbraith RA The porphyrias. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, editors. The metabolic and molecular basis of inherited disease. 7th ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Book Company; 1995. p. 2103-59.

Jaffe EK, Bagla S, Michini PA Reevaluation of a sensitive indicator of early lead exposure: measurement of porphobilinogen synthase in blood. Biol Trace Elem Res 1991;28:223-31.

Stoleski S, Karadžinska-Bislimovska J, Mijakoski D, Ristova V, Risteska-Kuc S, Matevski T, Stikova E Risk assessment and modern approach to lead intoxication. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Congress of Preventive Medicine in R. Macedonia with International Participation; 4-7 Oct 2006; Ohrid, R. Macedonia. Skopje: Macedonian Medical Association; 2006. p. 189.

Quajner PhH, editor. Standardization of lung function tests - 1993 update. Report Working Party for the European Community for Steel and Coal. Official Statement of the European Rrespiratory Society. Eur Rrespir J 1993;16(Suppl):1-100.

Prpić-Majić D. Toksikološko-kemijske analize [Toxicological and chemical analyes, in Croatian]. Beograd-Zagreb: Medicinska knjiga; 1985. p. 32-8.

Miller DT, Paschal DC, Gunter EW, Stroud PE, D'Angelo J Determination of lead in blood using electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with a L'vov platform and matrix modifier. Analyst 1987;112:1701-4.

Voelkopf V, Grobenski Z, Schlemmer G, Weiz B Determination of lead in blood - Graphite furnace method atomic absorption spectroscopy. Methods of sampling and analysis MTA/MB-011/R92 2007 [displayed 12 November 2007]. Available at http://www.mtas.es/INSHT/en/MTA/MB_011_R92_en.htm

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Reference method for the determination of lead in suspended particulate matter collected from ambient air. Cincinnati: Center for Environmental Research Information; 1994.

Bonsignore D, Calissano P, Cartasangna C Un semplice metodo per la determinazione della deltaaminolevulinico-deidratasi nel sangue [A simple method to determine blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, in Italian]. Med Lav 1965;56:199.

Cvetanov V, Stikova E, Karadžinska-Bislimovska J Health condition and work ability. Skopje: Institute of Occupational Health; 1989.

Grabecki J, Haduch T, Urbanowicz H Die einfachen Bestimmungsmethoden der δ-Aminolavulinsaure im Harn [Simple regulation methods of the aminolevulinic acid in the urine, in German]. Int Arch Gewerbepathol Gewerbehyg 1967;23:226.

Eisinger J Sweet poison. Episodic outbreaks of colic, or ‘wine disease,’ plagued Europe for many centuries, even after an obscure German physician traced the cause to lead. Nat Hist 1996;105:48-53.

Needleman LH History of lead poisoning in the world. [displayed 10 November 2007]. Available at http://www.leadpoison.net/general.htm

Kocubovski M Dejstvoto na olovoto od ambientniot vozduh i evaluacija na zdravstvenata sostojba kaj učilisna populacija [Influence of lead from ambient air and evaluation of health condition in school children, in Macedonian]. [PhD Thesis]. Skopje: Medical faculty, University "Sts. Cyril and Methodius" Skopje; 2004.

Kelada NS, Shelton E, Kaufmann RB, Khoury JM δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase genotype and lead toxicity: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:1-13.

Orusev T Occupational Medicine. Skopje: Medical Faculty, University "Sts Cyril and Methodius" Skopje; 1982.

Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.117
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.335



CiteScore 2017: 1.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.341
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.494

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 71 71 14
PDF Downloads 29 29 6