Effects of Volcanic Eruptions on Environment and Health

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Učinci Vulkanskih Erupcija Na Okoliš I Zdravlje

Vulkani predstavljaju prijetnju za gotovo pola milijarde ljudi: danas je na Zemlji aktivno oko 500 vulkana, a svake se godine događa 10 do 40 njihovih erupcija. Posljedice erupcija vulkana odražavaju se na okoliš, utječu na klimu te na život i zdravlje ljudi, a vezani su uz pogoršanje socijalnih i gospodarskih uvjeta života. U okoliš s magmom uz vodenu paru (H2O), na površinu dospijevaju plinovi ugljikov dioksid (CO2) i sumporv dioksid (SO2), ugljikov monoksid (CO), vodikov sulfid (H2S), ugljikov sulfid (CS), ugljikov disulfid (CS2), klorovodik (HCl), vodik (H2), metan (CH4), fluorovodik (HF), bromovodik (HBr) i različiti organski spojevi te teški metali (živa, olovo, zlato). Njihovi nepovoljni učinci ovise o udaljenosti od vulkana te o eruptivnim obilježjima, tj. o viskozitetu magme i koncentraciji plinova. Štetnosti bliže vulkanu uključuju piroklastične rijeke, rijeke blata, plinova i vodene pare, potrese, zračne udare i tsunami. U štetnosti u udaljenim područjima ubrajaju se učinci toksičnosti vulkanskog pepela i zdravstveni problemi vezani uz dišni sustav, oči, kožu, zatim psihološke posljedice, ozljede, komunikacijski i transportni problemi, problem odlaganja otpada i opskrbe vodom, rušenje kuća, kao i pad strujnog napona. Dolazi do pogoršanja kvalitete vode i smanjenja kišnih razdoblja, oštećenja poljoprivrednih usjeva, uništavanja vegetacije. Za vrijeme vulkanskih erupcija i neposredno nakon njih povećan je morbiditet, posebno od respiratornih bolesti, a povećan je i mortalitet osoba zahvaćenih vulkanskom erupcijom. Nepovoljni zdravstveni učinci mogu se djelomično prevenirati pravodobnom primjenom zaštitnih mjera.

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Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology

The Journal of Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health

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