Individual Differences and Sleep Deprivation Effects

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Individualne Razlike i Učinci Deprivacije Spavanja

Suvremeni način života i različite životne okolnosti sve češće zahtijevaju od pojedinca da skrati trajanje spavanja i mijenja njegov raspored, što često rezultira deprivacijom spavanja. Ranija su istraživanja pokazala da učinci deprivacije spavanja na fiziološko i psihološko funkcioniranje pojedinca ovise o mnogobrojnim čimbenicima poput vrste deprivacije, trajanja prethodnog spavanja, doba dana kad se ispituju učinci, karakteristika zadataka koji se izvode te motivacije ispitanika. U ovom se radu raspravlja o učincima deprivacije spavanja te postojanju stabilnih individualnih razlika u tim učincima koje se nazivaju "ranjivost na gubitak spavanja". Novija istraživanja upućuju na moguću važnost nekih karakteristika ispitanika u predviđanju sustavnih i robusnih posljedica deprivacije spavanja, poput dobi i spola te nekih osobina ličnosti u širem smislu. Nadalje, upozorava se na moguću važnost individualnih razlika u nekim specifičnim osobinama povezanim sa spavanjem i budnošću, poput preferencija cirkadijurne faze, potrebe za spavanjem, za osobu karakteristične razine pospanosti i sposobnosti brzog uspavljivanja. Dosadašnja istraživanja osobina povezanih s različitom ranjivošću na gubitak spavanja nisu dala jednoznačne rezultate o njihovoj prediktivnoj važnosti. Daljnja istraživanja usmjerena na ovaj problem mogla bi pomoći u identifikaciji osoba koje su posebno ranjive na gubitak spavanja te pridonijeti osobnoj i općoj sigurnosti za vrijeme obavljanja noćnog rada.

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