Assessment Tools in Early Detection of Osteoporosis in Dentistry

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Dijagnostičke Metode Za Rano Otkrivanje Osteoporoze U Stomatologiji

Osteoporoza, široko rasprostanjena i učestala koštana bolest odmakle životne dobi, obilježena je gubitkom koštane mase i dotrajalošču mikroarhitekture koštanoga tkiva, uz posljedično slabljenje tvrde koštane strukture te povečanje rizika pojave prijeloma. U radu su navedeni sistemski i lokalni čimbenici odgovorni za gubitak koštanoga tkiva čeljusti. Najčešči sistemski čimbenici povezani s gubitkom koš tane mase čeljusti, su osteoporoza, bubrežne bolesti, hormonski poremečaji, prehrana, ali i utjecaj različitih lijekova na koštanu strukturu. Od lokalnih čimbenika povezanih s gubitkom kosti čeljusti navode se kronične parodontne bolesti, rani gubitak zuba te nepovoljan učinak protetskog nadomjeska na bezubi dio grebena. U svrhu procjene gubitka koštane strukture čeljusti primjenjuju se različite metode, od kojih najčešče apsorpciometrija x-zraka (DXA), kvantitativna kompjuterska tomografija, intraoralna mikrodenzitometrija, indeks SCORE te procjena debljine i kvalitete donjeg kortikalnog ruba mandibule. Kvantitativna i kvalitativna procjena koštanoga tkiva čeljusti od iznimnog je značenja za sva područja stomatologije - od parodontologije do endodoncije i stomatološke protetike, posebice u stomatološkoj implantologiji. U tijeku planiranja buduče implantološke terapije važno je procijeniti stanje kosti čeljusti, odnosno njihovu kvalitetu i kvantitetu te, uzimajuči u obzir navedene sistemske i lokalne čimbenike povezane s gubitkom koštane mase, ispravno postaviti indikacije za daljnje liječenje.

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