Iron and Manganese in Well Water: Potential Risk for Irrigation Systems

Abstract

In the light of climate changes and in order to achieve stable crop production, irrigation represents an inevitable measure. Apart from water quantity, water quality represents a matter of concern. The paper elaborates on the presence of iron and manganese, as the main factors of causing the clogging of irrigation systems. The examined well water samples were taken mainly from Serbia. Photometric methods were applied for determining iron and manganese, and sensors for pH and conductivity. The obtained values were later subjected to a classification for irrigation water and the well water samples were classified according to the given thresholds. Precise location and presentation of the obtained results were done using the Geographic information system. The research has shown that from the analysed well water, only in 6 samples iron concentrations were increased up to a level classified as “extreme restrictions,” 4 samples as “warning,” while 31 samples of water were “adequate for irrigation.” Concerning manganese, in only one sample water was classified as “extreme restrictions,” in 14 as “warning” and in 26 as “adequate for irrigation.” pH and conductivity did not coincide with elevated concentrations of iron and manganese, but in the cases of exceeding thresholds, special attention should also be paid to these parameters.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • AYERS, R.S. – WESTCOT, D.W. 1985. Water Quality for Agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 29 Rev. 1st, Rome : FAO. Available at: www.fao.org/3/T0234E/T0234E00.htm

  • BARLOKOVÁ, D. – ILAVSKÝ, J. 2018. Groundwater: An Important Resource of Drinking Water in Slovakia. In: Negm, A. – Zeleňáková, M. (eds). Water Resources in Slovakia: Part I. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Springer, Cham. vol. 69, 2018.

  • BLUEWATERS. 2005. Project 353 Draft report: Sustainable solutions to improve quality of drinking water affected by high arsenic contents in 3 Vojvodinian regions. 2005, Book II: Groundwater sources Stadt Wien MA 31 – Water Management. Available at: http://www.ekourbapv.vojvodina.gov.rs/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/book2hydrogeology.pdf

  • BORTOLINI, L. – MAUCIERI, C. – BORIN, M. 2018. A Tool for the Evaluation of Irrigation Water Quality in the Arid and Semi-Arid Regions. In Agronomy, vol. 8, 2018, no. 23, pp. 1–15. https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/8/2/23

  • DALCORSO, G. – MANARA, A. – PIASENTIN, S. – FURINI A. 2014. Nutrient metal elements in plants. In Metallomics: Integrated biometal science, vol. 6, 2014, no. 10. doi:10.1039/c4mt00173g

  • FAO. 2017. Water for Sustainable Food and Agriculture. A report produced for the G20 Presidency of Germany, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-109977-3.

  • GRABIĆ, J. – BENKA, P. – BEZDAN, A. – JOSIMOV-DUNĐERSKI, J. – SALVAI A. 2016. Water quality management for preserving fish populations within Hydro-system Danube-Tisa-Danube, Serbia. In Carpathian journal of earth and environmental sciences. vol. 11, 2016, pp. 235–243. www.ubm.ro/sites/CJEES/viewTopic.php?topicId=613

  • ILIĆ, M. – VRANEŠEVIĆ, M. – BEZDAN, A. – BLAGOJEVIĆ, B. 2019. Classification of Water Quality of Banat Watercourses in Serbia for the Needs of Irrigation. In Journal of Environmental Geography, vol. 12, 2019, no. 1–2, pp. 51–57. doi.org/10.2478/jengeo-2019-0006

  • IPCC. 2014. Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. Contribution of working groups I, II and III to the 5th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Core Writing Team, R. K. Pachauri and L. A. Meyer, edsitors. Geneva (Switzerland): IPCC; p. 151. doi:10013/epic.45156.d001

  • KALETOVA, T. – JURIK, L. 2018. Quality of Water Required for Irrigation. In book: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry Water Resources in Slovakia: Part I Assessment and Development. 1st ed., Berlin, Heidelberg : Springer. doi: 10.1007/698_2017_214

  • LEVIDOW, L. – ZACCARIA, D. – MAIA, R. – VIVAS, E. – TODOROVIC, M. – SCARDIGNO, A. 2014. Improving water-efficient irrigation: Prospects and difficulties of innovative practices. In Agricultural Water Management, vol. 146, 2014, pp. 84–94. ISSN 0378-3774. doi. org/10.1016/j.agwat.2014.07.012

  • OLESEN, J.E. – TRNKA, M. – KERSEBAUM, K.C. – SKJELVÅG, A.O. – SEGUIN, B. – PELTONEN-SAINIO, P. – ROSSI, P. – KOZYRA, – MICALE J.F. 2011. Impacts and adaptation of European crop production systems to climate change. In European Journal of Agronomy, vol. 34, 2011, no. 2, pp. 96–112. ISSN 1161-0301. doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2010.11.003

  • POTKONJAK, S. – ZORANOVIĆ, T. – MAČKIĆ, K. 2010. The irrigation influence on agricultural intensification in Serbia. In Economics of agriculture, International scientific meeting: Multifunctional agriculture and rural development (V) – regional specifities, Banja Vrujci, Serbia, 2nd–3rd, December 2010, special issue. Available at: www.ea.bg.ac.rs/index.php/EA/article/view/1000

  • REPUBLIC HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL SERVICE OF SERBIA – RHMSS. 2010-2017. Hydological yearbooks, Part III: Water Qaulity.

  • ROUT, R.G. – SAHOO S. 2015. Role of iron in plant growth and metabolism. In Reviews in Agricultural Science, vol. 3, 2015, pp. 1–24. doi:10.7831/ras.3.1

  • ROWLAND, H.A.L. – OMOREGIE, E. – MILLOT, R. – JIMENEZ, C. – MERTENS, J. – BACIU, C. – HUG, S.J. – BERG, M. 2010. Geochemistry and arsenic behaviour in groundwater resources of the Pannonian Basin (Hungary and Romania). In Applied Geochemistry, 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2010.10.006

  • VARSÁNYI, I. – KOVÁCS, L.Ó. 2006. Arsenic, iron and organic matter in sediments and groundwater in the Pannonian Basin, Hungary. In Applied Geochemistry, 2006, no. 21, pp. 49–963.

  • VRANEŠEVIĆ, M. – ILIĆ, M. – BEZDAN, A. 2018. Irrigation water quality of the Tamiš River. In Annals of Agronomy, vol. 42, 2018, no. 1, pp. 17–25. Available at: http://polj.uns.ac.rs/sr/node/1423

  • XIUFU, S. – ZINATI, G. 2005. Management of Iron in Irrigation Water. Rutgers University, New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station: New Brunswick, New Jersey. Fact Sheet FS516. Available at: https://njaes.rutgers.edu/fs516/

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search