Viruses are a form of life that possess genes but do not have a cellular structure. Viruses do not have their own metabolism, and they require a host cell to make new products; therefore, they cannot naturally reproduce outside a host cell . The complete set of viruses in an organism or habitat is called the virome; for example, all human viruses constitute the human virome . Although there are millions of different types of viruses, only about 5,000 types have been described in detail . A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively.
The objective of this paper is to present the basic practical clinical roles of viruses in patients with hematological diseases including malignancies and non-malignancies, as well as those undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), with the focus on herpesviruses causing latent infections in severely immunocompromised patients.
The current classification of viruses was developed by The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). As of June 2019, 14 orders, 143 families, 64 subfamilies, 846 genera and almost 5000 species of viruses have been defined by the ICTV. The orders are the Caudovirales, Herpesvirales, Ligamenvirales, Mononegavirales, Nidovirales, Ortervirales, Picornavirales, Bunyavirales, Tymovirales, Muvirales, Serpentovirales, Jingchuvirales, Goujianvirales, and Articulavirales (Virus Metadata Resource; https://talk.ictvonline.org/taxonomy/vmr/)
Baltimore classification of viruses is based on the DNA or RNA of virus and method of mRNA synthesis . Viral genomes may be RNA or DNA, single-stranded (ss) or double-stranded (ds), and may or may not use reverse transcriptase (RT). Additionally, ssRNA viruses may be either sense (+) or antisense (−). The vast majority of viruses have RNA genomes. Baltimore classification divides viruses into seven groups (Tab. I).
Baltimore classification of viruses
|I||dsDNA viruses||Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, Poxviruses|
|II||ssDNA viruses (+ strand or „sense”) DNA||Parvoviruses|
|IV||(+)ssRNA viruses (+ strand or sense) RNA||Picornaviruses, Togaviruses|
|V||(−)ssRNA viruses (− strand or antisense) RNA||Orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses|
|VI||ssRNA-RT viruses (+ strand or sense) RNA with DNA intermediate in life-cycle||Retroviruses|
|VII||dsDNA-RT viruses DNA with RNA intermediate in life-cycle||Hepadnaviruses|
Role of viruses in hematology
From the hematologist point of view, viruses can play a major role in four conditions: causing infections; causing lymphoproliferations and/ or malignancies; causing (pan)cytopenia; and used as vectors in treatment (e.g., gene therapy, CAR-T cells) (Tab. II)
Role of viruses in hematology
|Causing infections||Episodic infections (CARV) Latent infections (herpesviruses, ADV, BKV, JCV) Hepatotropic infections (HBV, HCV, HEV)|
|Causing lymphoproliferations and/or malignancy||EBV, HTLV (HIV, HCV)|
|Causing pancytopenias||PVB19, HAV, HCV, HIV, DENV|
|Used in treatment||Retroviruses, Lentiviruses (vectors for CAR-T cells, gene therapy)|
Taking into the role of viruses in hematology, infection is the most frequent condition. Among DNA viruses, the highest morbidity potential for human is expressed by Herpesviridiae (herpes viruses), Adenoviridae (adenovirus; ADV), Polyomavirus (BKV, JCV), and Bocavirus.
RNA viruses can play a role in pathogenesis of different clinical conditions and diseases: lymphoproliferative disorders and malignancy, possibly causing NHL, AML, MDS, and others (HCV, HIV, and potentially Dengue virus, Zika virus, Chickungunya virus); pancytopenia and aplastic anemia (HIV, HCV, Dengue virus); respiratory infections (community-acquired respiratory virus infections; CARV) caused by Orthomyxoviruses (e.g., influenza A/B), Paramyxoviruses (e.g., human parainfluenza virus PIV-1, -2, -3, and -4; respiratory syncytial virus RSV-A and -B), Picornaviruses (e.g., human rhinovirus), coronaviruses (e.g., human coronavirus), Pneumoviridiae (e.g., human metapneumovirus), and potentially other viruses.
Diagnostics of viral infections in hematological patients
Laboratory test for viral infections with focus on latent and chronic infections should be performed in many hematological conditions, especially at diagnosis of the disease, and before HCT (both in recipient and donor). Additionally, after HCT monitoring for CMV and EBV, reactivation is mandatory in allo-HCT setting, and for several other viruses depending on clinical signs and symptoms (Tab. III)
Mandatory screening tests for viral infections in hematology
|Clinical situation||Viral test|
|Malignancy at diagnosis||CMV, EBV, HIV, HBV, HCV (serology)|
|Before HCT||CMV, EBV, HIV, HBV, HCV, (HSV, VZV) (serology)|
|Donor HSC||CMV, EBV, HIV, HBV, HCV (serology)|
|After allo-HCT||CMV, EBV (NAT)|
|Thrombocytopenia||CMV, EBV, HIV|
|Pancytopenia||CMV, EBV, HIV, HAV, HBV, HCV, PVB19|
|Leukocytosis||EBV, CMV, HCV|
|Respiratory infection||CARV, ADV, CMV|
|Hemorrhagic cystitis||BKV, ADV, CMV|
|Encephalitis||HHV6, CMV, EBV, JCV, VZV, HSV|
|Hepatitis||HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV and other|
Viral infections are a major issue for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. The most important viral pathogens in this group of patients include herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), human herpes 6 virus (HHV6), adenovirus (ADV), BK virus (BKV), influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, and norovirus. Other pathogenic viruses include enteroviruses, HIV, hepatitis, JCV, and parvovirus (PVB19).
Reactivation of latent infections with herpes viruses may lead to various disease manifestations, regardless of its primary acquisition after the transplant. Unlike in the general immunocompetent population, with typical clinical manifestations of infection ranging from asymptomatic to mild or moderate symptoms, HCT recipients may frequently develop much more severe disease.
It is essential to identify patients at risk for reactivation of latent viruses, as active infection and diseases can often be prevented with prophylaxis and preemptive monitoring during the most critical time periods.
Herpesviridae create a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses with specific and unique biologic features, enabling them to establish latency program after primary infection in human prior to reactivation later in life. With respect to taxonomy, there are three subfamilies: alpha-, beta-, and gamma-herpes-viridiae, which include nine known human herpesviruses (Tab. IV)
Family of Herpesviridiae
In the most severely immunocompromised patients, which comprise mainly recipients of allo-HCT from unrelated or mismatched donor, four herpesviruses play a major role in chronic latent and relapsing infections including CMV, EBV, HHV6B, and VZV. So far, no pathogenicity was shown for HHV-6A virus. These four viruses are described and discussed in this article. Basic characteristics of these four herpesviruses are shown in table V [5, 6, 7, 8].
Basic characteristics of CMV, EBV, HHV6, and VZV infections in HCT setting
|Nucleic acid||ds DNA||ds DNA||ds DNA||ds DNA|
|Year first identified||1956||1964||1986||1888|
|Incubation period||3-12 weeks||3-7 weeks||1-2 weeks||2-3 weeks|
|Seroprevalence in children||30-50%||30-50%||First infection in first two years of life; (CIHHV6: 1%)||67% (age: 1-4y)|
|Seroprevalence in adults||>70%||>90%||>97% (HHV6 B) (CIHHV6 – 1%)||>98%|
|Congenital infection||Yes (TORCH)||Yes (rare; asymptomatic)||Congenital (vertical) CIHHV6 (inherited from mother or father)||Yes (TORCH)|
|Confirmed modes of trans- mission||With blood and other body fluids (saliva)||With saliva and other body fluids; Kissing disease (saliva)||With saliva and other body fluids||Airborne route or through contact* with contaminated environment|
|Transfer with HSC||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
Herpes simplex virus. HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection is usually associated with mucocutaneous disease in the orofacial region (85%–90%), and rarely in the esophageal and genital area. Rare manifestations are meningitis, encephalitis, pneumonia, and hepatitis. Mucocutaneous HSV disease is diagnosed clinically and can be confirmed by PCR. HSV meningitis and encephalitis should be confirmed by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Antiviral drug prophylaxis is not recommended in HSV-seronegative patients after HCT (except anti-VZV prophylaxis). HSV-seropositive patients should receive antiviral drug prophylaxis after allo-HCT. Intravenous acyclovir 250 mg/m2 or 5 mg/kg every 12 h, oral acyclovir 3 x 200 to 2 x 800 mg/day, oral valaciclovir 2 x 500 mg/day, or famciclovir 2 x 500 mg/day can be used, for a period of at least 4 weeks after HCT in VZV-seronegative patients. Intravenous acyclovir remains the therapy of choice for severe mucocutaneous or visceral HSV disease. Intravenous acyclovir 250 mg/m2 or 5 mg/kg every 8 h for 7–10 days is the therapy of choice for severe mucocutaneous or visceral HSV disease. Oral acyclovir, from 5 x 200 to 5 x 400 mg/day, valaciclovir 2 x 500 mg/day, or famciclovir 2 x 500 mg/day for 10 days are considered as alternatives for less serious manifestations of HSV disease. For HSV pneumonia or HSV meningitis and encephalitis, i.v. acyclovir 500 mg/m2 or 10 mg/kg every 8 h for at least 14–21 days is recommended. HSV resistance occurs in approximately 5%–15% of patients and foscarnet or cidofovir is second-line therapy .
HHV-7 primary infection in young children (<5y) causes exanthema subitum (roseola) and rarely status epilepticus with fever. Reactivation of HHV-7 occurs in about 10% of patients after allo-HCT. Clinically, overt HHV-7 detection after HCT is rare and might be associated with CNS disease (encephalitis or myelitis). Diagnosis of HHV-7 is made by qPCR. Usually, infection with HHV-7 does not require specific treatment .
HHV-8 (KSHV, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus) is the cause of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), as well as primary effusion lymphoma and Castleman’s disease. KS is extremely rare after HCT with skin involvement, fever, and marrow aplasia with plasmocytosis. Pediatric cases might have visceral involvement. Diagnosis of HHV-8 is made by qPCR. KS can be confirmed histopathologically as malignant tumor. In skin manifestation, surgical excision or electrochemotherapy is the preferable approach. For other manifestations, possible options include the following: interferon-alpha, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy [9,10]. The use of antiviral treatment is not recommended.
Herpes viruses seroprevalence: increasing with age
The human herpesviruses, such as CMV, EBV, HHV6, and VZV, are being the agents of a global infection although differences in the seroprevalence exist between countries: it is the well-documented fact in case of CMV [5, 6, 7, 8]. CMV acquisition in a general population is characterized by an age-dependent rise in seropositivity, which correlates most closely with socioeconomic level as well as race, similarly to other herpesviruses . Seroprevalence of CMV varies from about 40%–50% in highly developed countries to over 90% of population in the developing countries, with the rate from about 30% in childhood to over 50% of women of childbearing age and even up to 60%–70% in adults. However, the incidence slightly decreases with the calendar year. Nevertheless, in population of highly developed countries, CMV acquisition still occurs at a rate of 1%–7% per year [8, 9, 11, 12, 13].
There is an exception in case of HHV-6, as apart from seroprevalence after acquired infection, mainly in early childhood, there is a congenital phenomenon of chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CIHHV-6), resulting from vertical transmission: inherited from mother or father. It occurs both in HHV-6A or HHV-6B with prevalence about 1% in the general population. In case of CIHHV-6, the virus HHV-6 present in every nucleated cell, and HHV-6 DNA can be easily detected in hair follicles and nails. In most cases, there is one copy of HHV-6 DNA/ leukocyte [14,15].
Clinical symptoms: many manifestations
Some of herpesviruses have a potential to play a role in pathogenesis of different diseases with various manifestations. This is well observed in case of EBV and CMV, and it happens also for HHV6 and VZV (Tab. VI)
Clinical syndromes and symptoms
|Clinical symptoms||CMV||EBV||HHV6 A/B||VZV|
|Asymptomatic||Yes||Yes||Yes None (HHV-6A)||Possible|
|Mild (general population)||CMV disease (mononucleosis-like)||Mononucleosis||Exanthema subitum (±HHV7)||Varicella Herpes zoster|
|Severe||Pneumonia, GI infection, hepatitis, BM suppression, retinitis||PTLD*, end-organ diseases, HLH, chronic fatigue syndrome||Encephalitis; CNS dysfunction; pneumonia; BM suppression; hepatitis; IPS||Visceral (encephalitis, pneumonitis, hepatitis); Neuralgia|
Also CIHHV-6 can be associated with several diseases. There is a good evidence of association with aGVHD and CMV reactivation . It is probably associated with angina pectoris in general population, and there are known cases of hemophagocytosis with thrombotic microangiopathy in SCID patients, as well as encephalitis post-HCT.
Risk factors and incidence of reactivation
Risk factors of herpes virus recurrence after allo-HCT depend on the following: recipient (virus serology; age), donor (virus serology match; age; sex match; HLA match; type of family/unrelated donor; stem cell source), transplant (type of conditioning: TBI-or chemotherapy-based; T-cell depletion; intensity of myeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning, RIC), immunosuppressive treatment (prophylaxis, occurrence and treatment of acute and/or chronic GVHD; immunosuppressive drugs used in prophylaxis and/or therapy), as well as immune recovery after HCT (speed of immune reconstitution for B cells, T cells, NK cells; recovery of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, CTLs) . Incidence of reactivation in patients after HCT is presented in table VII
Incidence of reactivation in patients after HCT
|Reactivation (without prophylaxis)||30%–35%||Median 29% (0.1%–63%)||30%–70%||25%–50%|
|Symptomatic clinical disease after HCT||1%–2% up to 11% at 1y ||3% (1% MFD, up to 11% MMUD/haplo) ||0.5% (BM/PB) 8.3%–11.6% (CBT) [14,16]||30%–60% (without prophylaxis) |
The highest risk of CMV recurrence and CMV disease is reported for HCT CMV-seropositive recipients (R), regardless on donor (D) serostatus. The odds ratio for CMV recurrence is higher for R+ vs R- CMV-serostatus transplants (odds ratio: OR=8.0), D-/R+ vs D+/ R+ CMV-serostatus transplants (OR=1.2), unrelated/mismatched vs matched-family donor transplants (OR=1.6), and acute graft-versus-host-disease vs others (OR=3.2) .
The highest risk for EBV reactivation and development of EBV-PTLD is in the case of donor seropositivity, as in majority of cases EBV-PTLD after HCT is of donor origin .
In several studies, the relative frequency of herpes viruses reactivations was analyzed in population of patients after allo-HCT, sometimes also with frequency of other latent viruses. Schmidt-Hieber et al.  showed in CNS (patients with encephalitis) incidence of 1.2% (32/2628), including: HHV6, 19%; EBV, 19%; HSV, 13%; JCV, 9%; VZV, 6%; ADV, 3%; more than one virus, 16% (CMV+HHV6+JCV; HHV6+HHV7; CMV+HHV6; HSV+EBV; CMV+VZV+HSV+EBV). The 1-year survival of patients after viral encephalitis was below 40%.
Diagnostics of reactivation and disease after HCT
|Material for screening||Blood (p/s)||Blood (p/s)||No screening||No screening|
|Material for diagnosis disease||Blood (p/s), CNS fluid, Biopsy specimen||Blood (p/s), CNS fluid, Biopsy specimen||Whole blood (p/s); (+hair follicles, nails for CIHHV6); CNS fluid||Blood (p/s), CNS fluid|
|Diagnosis of reactivation||PCR||PCR||PCR||Clinical + PCR|
|Most frequent disease manifestations||Pneumonia, GI tract||PTLD||Encephalitis||Varicella/Zoster|
|Biopsy||Required for proven diagnosis (except retinitis)||Required for proven diagnosis||Not required||Not necessary|
|Definitive diagnosis||Biopsy (CMV proteins)||Biopsy (EBER, viral proteins)||HHV6-DNA in CSF; exclusion of CIHHV6||Clinical symptoms +DNA-emia|
|Imaging||Various||PET||Brain MRI often normal||No|
|Additional methods||DNA-emia (PCR)||DNA-emia (PCR)||DNA-emia (PCR)||Clinical + PCR|
Wu et al.  also analyzed the incidence of viral CNS reactivation of herpesviruses, with overall incidence of 12.4%. The most frequent were as follows: EBV, 57.1%; HSV1, 19.0%; CMV, 14.3%; VZV, 4.8%, and mixed 4.8% (EBV+CMV).
Polish analyses [19, 20, 21] showed the incidence of viral reactivation in children: CMV, 29.2%; EBV, 24.3%; BKV, 22.8%; ADV, 5.2%, and the incidence of HHV6 was 1.5%; however, this virus was not usually being tested in all centers. The respective incidence in adults’ patients included the following: CMV, 24.7%; BKV, 5.9%; ADV, 2.9%; EBV, 1.9% .
Diagnostics before HCT: serology
Because of incidence and several strategies of prophylaxis and preemptive therapy, it is an universal agreement expressed in a number of guidelines, that in allo-HCT setting, both recipient and donor should be tested serologically (i.e., IgG antibodies) for CMV and EBV, while not for HHV6 and VZV markers. In auto-HCT setting, only CMV serology is usually required, but not EBV, HHV6, or VZV markers. Principles of diagnostics of reactivation and end-organ disease are shown in table VIII The definitive diagnosis of reactivation is confirmed by the presence of viral DNA detected by PCR. In case of HHV6, one must exclude CIHHV6, while in case of VZV diagnosis is usually clinical.
The proven diagnosis of herpes virus end-organ disease must be done from biopsy in case of CMV and EBV, from the presence of CSF DNA in case of HHV6, and clinical diagnosis with blood DNA for VZV.
With the variety of viruses, there is a variety of evidences on viral prophylaxis (Tab. IX) Only in case of CMV, there is a good quality of evidence to use antivirals. Nevertheless, so far it was not a recommended strategy because of its toxicity of antiviral drugs. Introduction of letermovir might possibly change this practice, what is happening already in many centers in other countries .
Possibilities of prophylaxis
|Non-specific prophylaxis||Selecting CMV-matched donor||Selecting EBV-negative donor||Not known||Avoiding contact|
|Specific prophylaxis||Used as a strategy||Weak recommendation||Not recommended||Mandatory in IgG+ (allo ≥12 months; auto 3-6 months)|
|Method||Antivirals: GCV (ganciclovir), LMV (letermovir)||Anti-CD20||NO||Acyclovir (valaciclovir)|
|Possible passive immunization after exposure||CMV-Ig||Not available||Not available||VZ-Ig|
Passive immunization (specific immunoglobulins) is available for CMV (CMV-Ig) and VZV (VZ-Ig), whereas it is not available for EBV and HHV6. VZ-Ig is recommended for prophylaxis after exposure (up to 2 years after HCT) in IgG-negative transplant recipients . CMV-Ig is recommended as an option only for treatment of CMV pneumonia, whereas it is not recommended for prophylaxis or preemptive treatment .
Preemptive approach is currently recommended as a post-transplant strategy for CMV and EBV reactivation, whereas it is not recommended for HHV6 and not necessary for VZV infection. This approach is a result of frequency of reactivations and therapeutic possibilities: antivirals for CMV (ganciclovir GCV and foscarnet FSC in first/second line, and cidofovir CDV in third line of therapy) , and anti-CD20 for EBV (rituximab) . Preemptive therapy (also known as preemptive prophylaxis) should be based on a routine screening for blood DNA-emia by qPCR and administration of drugs in case of positive viremia, usually defined locally by specific cutoff value. It is recommended to start preemptive approach within first 4 weeks after HCT and to continue it at least up to day +100 or longer in case of risk factors for reactivation or presence of graft-versus-host disease and immunosuppressive therapy.
The first-line treatment of end-organ disease is based on administration of GCV (2 x 5 mg/kg) or FSC (2 x 90 mg/kg) for CMV disease, rituximab 375 mg/m2 weekly for EBV disease, GCV or FSC for HHV6 disease, and acyclovir (3 x 500 mg/m2 intravenously or 5 x 800 mg; pediatric dose 4 x 20 mg/kg orally) (Tab. X) [5, 6, 22, 23].
Treatment of end-organ disease
|Treatment (first line)||GCV/FSC||Anti-CD20 +reduction of IST||GCV/FSC||ACV|
|Treatment (second line)||CDV GCV+FSC||FSC/GCV GCV+FSC||VACV, brivudin, famciclovir|
|Treatment (resistant cases)||GCV+FSC CDV||+chemotherapy||FSC; CDV (weekly; +probenecid)|
|Cellular therapy: Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes||CMV-CTL*||EBV-CTL* (Tabelecleucel)||HHV6-CTL*||NO|
|Multi-specific CTLs||Yes (CMV, EBV, HHV6, ADV, BKV)*|
Impact of herpes virus infections on transplant outcomes
|Outcome||CMV [22, 33, 34]||EBV [7, 35, 36]||HHV6 [14–16]||VZV [5, 37]|
|OS (overall survival)||Decreased OS||No effect||Decreased OS?||Decreased OS|
|RI (relapse incidence)||No effect||Replication: ↓RI?||No effect||No effect|
|NRM (non-relapse mortality)||Replication: ↑NRM||Replication: ↑NRM?||Replication: ↑NRM?|
|Acute GVHD||No?||No?||YES (↑ in CIHHV6)||No|
|Chronic GVHD||↑ in repeated CMV infections||Increased (if: donor IgG+)||No?||No|
VZV is the only herpes virus for which vaccine is available/approved: live attenuated (LAZV: Zostavax, and LAVV: Varivax), heat-inactivated (V212; Phase III) (auto-HCT) , and recombinant (Shingrix; approved 2017; RZV, Phase III, ZOE-HSCT Trial) (presented during EBMT Annual Meeting 2019). So far, live attenuated vaccines are contraindicated both after allo- and auto-HCT at least up to 24 months after HCT. Afterwards, one dose of LAVV can be considered in VZV-seronegative adult patients (two doses in children) with no GvHD, without immunosuppressive treatment, no relapse of underlying disease, and no treatment of immunoglobulins during the previous months; the second dose can be considered in adult seronegative patients or had no history of VZV infection [25, 26, 27, 28, 29]. In transplant setting, inactivated vaccines should be preferred to LAVZ. Still, more data are needed on allo-HCT [25, 26, 27, 28, 29].
Outcome of infection
Herpes virus infection is always regarded as a serious complications. The most frequent end-organ diseases have relatively poor outcome, with about 50% survival for CMV pneumonia, 70% for EBV-PTLD, and 50% for HHV6 encephalitis [30, 31, 32]. Only in case of VZV, the outcome is close to 100%; this is because of effective prophylaxis with acyclovir for at least 12 months after HCT. Positive risk factor for good outcome of infection is reduction of immunosuppressive treatment, if possible. On the other hand, another pitfalls of treatment of herpes virus infection are adverse events of antiviral therapy.
Herpes virus infections might have also an impact on transplant outcomes. The results are ambiguous. The summary, based on large studies, is presented in table XI
Because of high worldwide seroprevalence and latency, infections with herpesviruses are, and will be, frequent. Current strategies of management of CMV and EBV are based on mandatory monitoring of DNA-emia and administration of preemptive therapy if DNA-emia is positive; however, pharmacological prophylaxis is a renewed possibility in case of CMV (letermovir) and is an option for EBV infection (rituximab). In case of HHV-6, no routine screening is recommended; however, in case of encephalitis, encephalopathy, myelosuppression, respective diagnostics should be performed, including test for CIHHV6. Finally, with acyclovir prophylaxis, it seems that VZV is under control of transplantologists and hematologists, and there are also possibilities for vaccination against this infection.
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Ljungman P, Brand R, Hoek J, et.al. Infectious Diseases Working Party of the European Group for B, Marrow T: Donor cytomegalovirus status influences the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplant: a study by the European group for blood and marrow transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2014;59:473-81.)| false 10.1093/cid/ciu364
Styczynski J Tridello G Gil L et al. Impact of Donor Epstein-Barr Virus Serostatus on the Incidence of Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients With Acute Leukemia After Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation: A Study From the Acute Leukemia and Infectious Diseases Working Parties of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:2212-20.
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Styczynski J, Tridello G, Gil L, et al. Impact of Donor Epstein-Barr Virus Serostatus on the Incidence of Graft-Versus-Host Disease in Patients With Acute Leukemia After Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation: A Study From the Acute Leukemia and Infectious Diseases Working Parties of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:2212-20.)| false 27091716
Dierickx D Habermann TM. Post-Transplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Adults. N Engl J Med 2018;378:549-62.
Seo HM Kim YS Bang CH et al. Antiviral prophylaxis for preventing herpes zoster in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Antiviral Res 2017;140:106-15.