The growth performance, haematological and serum biochemical characteristics of thirty-six West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep of about 10 - 12 months of age and averaged 8.53kg in weight were sourced from the College flock. Four dietary treatments designated as T1, T2, T3 and T4 were formulated to contain 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% oil palm leaf meal (OPLM) respectively were randomly assigned to the animals. The experimental animals were divided into four groups of nine animals each, with each group replicated thrice with three animals per replicate. Each group was allotted to one of the diets in a completely randomized design. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the trial and weekly subsequently and data for growth performance were generated. Blood samples were obtained from one animal in each replicate, and data generated were analyzed statistically. Average daily feed intake, total dry matter intake and average daily weight gain were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatment, with animals on T4 group having higher and better values. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also differed significantly (P<0.05) with sheep on T3 and T4 (11.82 and 11.49 respectively) having the best FCR. The haematology showed that the packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell (RBC), and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCV) were significantly (P < 0.05) improved at 10%, 20% and 30% inclusion levels of OPLM, respectively. Sheep in treatment groups had improved (P < 0.05) white blood cell (WBC) count than those on the control group. Serum biochemistry results showed that total protein, albumin and globulin were significantly influenced (P < 0.05) and tended to increase with increasing levels of test ingredient. Sheep in treatment groups had higher (P < 0.05) urea values than those on control. Creatinine values at 20% and 30% inclusion differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the control value. Cholesterol was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) and followed an irregular trend across the treatment groups. The results showed that inclusion of OPLM had a beneficial effect on the general performance of the WAD sheep. Therefore, 30% OPLM supplementation was recommended for optimum performance in WAD sheep.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists: Official Methods of Analysis. 6th Edition. Washington DC USA. 2000.
2. Aye PA Tawose OM. Physiological responses of West African Dwarf sheep fed graded levels of Gmelina arborea leaves and cassava peel concentrates under different management systems. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am. 2016;7(4):185-195.
3. Aye PA. Growth performance physiological and haematological parameters of West African Dwarf sheep fed Panicum-cassava peels supplemented with or without Leucaena-based multinutrient blocks. Am. J. Food. Nutr. 2013;3(3): 135-146.
4. Chong KP Atong M Rossall S. The roles of syringic caffeic and 4- hydroxybenzoic acids in Ganoderma - oil palm interaction. Asian J. Microbiology Biotechnol and Environmental Sci. 2012;14(2):157-166.
5. Dacie JV Lewis M. Practical haematology. 8th edition. Longman group ltd. London. 1991;88-96.
6. Eheba ETE Omoikhojie SO Bangbose AM Druna MB Isidhahomen CE. Haematology and serum biochemistry of weaner rabbits fed cooked Bambara groundnutmeal as replacement for soybean meal. Proc. 33rd Annual Conf. Nig. Soc. Anim. Prod. Ayetoro Ogun. 2008;192-196.
7. Ekeocha AH Fakolade PO. Nitrogen balance of pregnant West African Dwarf (WAD) ewe fed Mexican sunflower leaf meal (MSLM) based diets. J Anim Prod Adv. 2012; 2(9):398-404.
8. Esonu BO Emelalom OO Udedibie ABI Herbert U Ekpor CFE Okoli IC Iheukwumere FC. Performance and blood chemistry of weaner pigs fed raw mucuna bean (velvet been) meal. Trop. Anim. Prod. Investig. 2008;4:49-54.
9. Esonu BO Udedibie ABI Emenalom OO Madumere CC and Uchegbu OA. Evaluation of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaf meal as feed ingredient in broiler diets. Nig. J. Anim. Prod. 2008;35(1):32-39.
10. Etim NN Enyenihi GE Williams ME Udo MD Offiong EEA. Haematological Parameters: Indicators of the Physiological Status of Farm Animals. Brit. J. Sci. 2013;10(1):33-45.
12. Fielder SE. Serum Biochemical Reference Ranges. Merck & Co. Inc. Kenilworth NJ USA. 2016.
13. Ifut OJ. The potential of cassava peels for feeding goats in Nigeria. In: cassava as livestock feed in Africa. 1988; 72- 81.
15. Jiwuba PC Ahamefule FO Ikwunze K Assam EM. Prolificacy and pre-weaning mortality of West African dwarf sheep raised intensively in a hot humid environment. Archives of Current Research International. 2016a;5(1):1-7.
16. Jiwuba PC Ahamefule FO Ogbuewu IP Ikwunze K. Blood chemistry and haematology of West African Dwarf goats fed Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in their diets. Comparative Clinical Pathology.2017;26 (3);621-624.
17. Jiwuba PC Ahamefule FO Okechukwu SO Ikwunze K. Feed intake body weight changes and haematology of West African dwarf goats fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal. Agricultura 2016C;13(1-2):71-77.
18. Jiwuba PC Ezenwaka LC Ikwunze K Nsidinanya NO. Blood profile of West African Dwarf goats fed provitamin A cassava peel-centrosema leaf meal based diets. Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii Alexandru Ioan Cuz” Sectiunea Genetica si Biologie Moleculara TOM XVII Fascicula. 2016d;3:27-134.
19. Jiwuba PC Ezenwaka LC. Growth performance and apparent nutrient digestibility of West African dwarf goats fed Β-carotene cassava peel-centrosema leaf meal based diets. Case Studies Journal. 2016; 5(8): 204-210.
20. Jiwuba PC Ikwunze Ume SI Nsidinanya NO. Performance apparent nutrient digestibility and cost benefit of West African Dwarf Goats fed dietary levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal. Journal of Advances in Biology and Biotechnology. 2016b; 8(3): 1-9.
21. Jiwuba PC Ugwu DO Kadurumba OE Dauda E. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Indices of weaner rabbits fed Varying Levels of Dried Gmelina Arborea Leaf Meal. International Blood Research and Reviews. 2016e;6(2):1-8.
22. Kaneko JJ. Clinical biochemistry of domestic animals 4th ed. New York Academic Press. 1989.
23. Kramar JW. Normal haematology of cattle sheep and goats. In: Feldman B. F. Zinkl J. G. Jain N. C. (editors). Schalm’s Veterinary Haematology. 5th edition.Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. U.S.A Philadelphia. 2000;1075-1084.
24. Mc-Donald P Edwards RA Greenhalgh JFD Morgan CA. Animal Nutrition. 5th edition. Longman publishers Edinburgh U.K. 1995. 607.
25. Mohamed S. Oil Palm Leaf: A new functional food ingredient for health and disease prevention. J Food Process Technol 2014;5(2);1-6.
26. Obi IU. Statistical methods of detecting differences between treatment means and ed. Snapp press Enugu Nigeria. 1990.
27. Oyeyemi MO Ajani OS. Haematological parameters and serum testosterone of West African Dwarf rams treated with aqueous extract of Cnidosacontifolius (Chaya). Journ Med. Plant Research. 2014;8(14):571-575.
28. Prvulovic D Kosarcic S Popovic M Dimitrigevic D Grubor-Lajsic G. The influence of hydrated aluminosilicate on biochemical and haematological blood parameters growth performance and carcass traits of pigs. J Anim Vet Adv. 2012; 11(1):134-140.
29. Ramos KS Melchert RB Chacon E Ascata-Jr D. Toxic responses in: Klassen C.D. and Watkins J.B. (editors) Cassaret and Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology McGraw Hill Medical publishing Division New York. 2003;266-287.
30. Research Animal Resource (RAR). Reference values for laboratory animals. Normal haematological values RAR websites.RAR.University of Minnesota. 2009.
31. Rout SP Choudary KA Kar DM Das L Jain A. Plants in traditional medicinal system - future source of new drugs. Int. J. Pharm. Pharmaceutical Sci. 2009;1:1-23.
32. Scholant W. A compendium of rabbit production appropriate for conditions in developing countries. Schriftenreihe der GTZ. 1985;169:85.
33. Ukanwoko AI Ironkwe MO Nmecha C. Growth performance and hematological characteristics of West African dwarf goats fed oil palm leaf meal - cassava peel based diets. J Anim Pro Sd Adv. 2013;3:1-5.
34. Ukanwoko AI. Evaluation of cassava peel - cassava leaf meal based diets for meat and milk production by West African Dwarf goats in South Eastern Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis. Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike. Nigeria. 2007.
35. Wong HK Zahari MW. Characterization of oil palm by - products as feed for ruminants. In proc. 15th MSAP conference on Vision 2020 towards more efficient and effective animal production strategies. Malaysian Society of Animal Production Malaysia. 1992;58-61.
36. Yin NS Abdullah S Phin CK. Phytochemical constituents from leaves of Elaeis guineensis and theirantioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013; 5(4):137-140.