Impact of salt reduction on the number of microorganisms and a sensory analysis for Kranjska sausages during their shelf-life

Open access


Salt is an important ingredient in the production of meat product. Any reduction of salt requires a special treatment. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of salt reduction on the growth of microorganisms in Kranjska sausages during their shell-life and to carry out a sensory assessment. The 18 lots of sausages were prepared under salt-reduced (1.6%) and control (2.3%) salt concentrations, directly on the production line. A total of 85 sausages were analysed and the data were used for the comparisons of groups (ANOVA) and to detect the significant variables (polynomial models) influenced on the total number of microorganisms (TNMs). The significant differences were determined between the lots (representing the microbiological status of the stuffing), between the salt-reduced samples and control samples, and between the different humidity levels. The correlations and significant relationships were determined between the TNMs and the lots, the salt concentrations, and the relative humidity. The polynomial models were to general to be used for the prediction. For sensory analysis implemented on 40th day 18 sausages were assessed. The reduction of salt resulted in lower scores in the sensory evaluation. The less-salted sausages contained more microorganisms.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Aaslyng MA Vestergaard C Koch AG. The effect of salt reduction on sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages bacon ham and salami. Meat Sci. 2014;96:47-55.

  • 2. BOX GEP Cox DR. An analysis of transformations. J.R.Stat. Soc. Series B.Stat. Methodol. 1964;26(2):211-252.

  • 3. Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates New Jersey USA1988.

  • 4. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs 2005. (15.11.2005).

  • 5. Desmond E. Reducing salt: A challenge for the meat industry. MeatSci. 2006;74:188-196.

  • 6. Desmond E. Reducing salt in meat and poultry products. In: Kilcast D Angus F (eds.) Reducing salt in foods. Woodhead Publishing Limited Cambridge England 2007:233-55.

  • 7. Doyle ED Glass HA. Sodium Reduction and Its Effect on Food Safety Food Quality and Human Health. Compr. Rev. FoodSci. FoodSaf. 2010;9:44-56.

  • 8. Freund RJ Littell RC. System for regression. SAS Institute Inc. Cary NC USA 1991.

  • 9. Giaouris E Heir E Hebraund M Chorianopoulos N Langsrud S Moretro T Habimana O Desvaux M Renier S Nychas GJ. Attachment and biofilm formation by foodborne bacteria in meat processing environments: causes implications role of bacterial interactions and control by alternative novel methods. Meat Sci. 2014;97:298-309.

  • 10. Hwang CA. Development of predictive models to enhance microbiological safety of ready-to-eat meats. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2013;3(4)70.

  • 11. Hwang CA Porto-Fett ACS Juneja VK Ingham SC Ingham BH Luchansky JB. Modeling the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium during fermentation drying and storage of soudjouk-style fermented sausage. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2009;129:244-252.

  • 12. ISO 1841-2:1996. International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) Determination of chloride content - Part 2: Potentiometric method Meat and Meat Products Geneva 1996.

  • 13. ISO 4833:2003E. International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs - Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms - Colony-count technique at 30 degrees C Food Microbiology Geneva 2003.

  • 14. Kilcast D den Ridder C. Sensory issues in reducing salt in food products. In: Kilcast D Angus F (eds.) Reducing salt in foods. Woodhead Publishing Limited Cambridge England 2007: 201-220.

  • 15. Kloss L Dawn Meyer J Graeve L Vetter W. Sodium intake and its reduction by food reformulation in the European Union - A review. NFS Journal 2015;1:9-19.

  • 16. Kropf IL. Effects of lowering (percentage of) salt in meat products on the content of the number of microorganisms (Vpliv zniževanja soli v mesnih izdelkih na vsebnost skupnega števila mikroorganizmov) [master thesis]. Maribor. Faculty for Agriculture and Life Sciences University of Maribor 2012.

  • 17. Mejlholm O Gunvig A Borggaard C Blom-Hanssen J Mellefont L Ross T Leroi F Else T Visser D Dalgaard P. Predicting growth rates and growth boundary of Listeria monocytogenes - An international validation study with focus on processed and ready-to-eat meat and seafood. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2010;141(3):137-150.

  • 18. Ministry of Health Government of the Republic of Slovenia. National Action Plan to reduce salt intake in the diet of people in Slovenia for the period 2010-2020 (Nacionalni akcijski načrt za zmanjševanje uživanja soli v prehrani prebivalcev Slovenije za obdobje 2010-2020). 2010. (3.10.2011).

  • 19. Montgomery DC Peck EA. Multicollinearity in regression. In: Wadsworth HM (eds.) Handbook of statistical methods for engineers and scientists. McGraw-Hill publishing company New York USA 1990:15.3-15.23.

  • 20. Pereira AGT Ramos EM Teixeira JT Cardoso GP Ramos ALS Fontes PG. Effects of the addition of mechanically deboned poultry meat and collagen fibers on quality characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Meat Sci. 2011;89:519-525.

  • 21. Puolanne E Halonen M. Theoretical aspects of waterholding in meat. Meat Sci. 2010;86(1):151-161.

  • 22. Institute of public health of the Republic of Slovenia in the cooperation with the Slovene Consumers’ association. Guidelines for microbiological safety which are intended for the final consumer (Smernice za mikrobiološko varnost živil ki so namenjena končnemu potrošniku). Authors:Rupel T Pavlica T Planina P Vidrih J Retelj M Car T Gošnjak M Lušicky M Bošnjak D Pretnar G Sabotin D. 2009.

  • 23. Sharedeh D Gatellier P Astruc T Daudin JD. Effects of pH and NaCl levels in a beef marinade on physicochemical states of lipids and proteins and on tissue microstructure. Meat Sci. 2015;110:24-31.

  • 24. Slovenian Environment Agency. Whether information for Maribor in year 2011.

  • 25. Soladoye OP Juarez ML Aalhus JL Shand P Estevez M. Protein Oxidation in Processed Meat: Mechanisms and Potential Implications on Human Health. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2015;14:106-122.

  • 26. SAS 9.4 (TS1M1) for Windows. SAS Institute Inc. Cary NC USA 2002-2012.

  • 27. SAS/STATR 9.2 User’s Guide. SAS Institute Inc. Cary NC USA 2008.

  • 28. World Health Organization(WHO). Diet nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation Who Technical Report Series Geneva 2002. (28.1.-1.2.2002).

  • 29. Winsberg S Ramsay JO. Monotonic transformations to additivity using splines. Biometrika1980;67(3):669-674.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 358 98 10
PDF Downloads 165 84 8