Three different types of nozzles (different wear rate) were used in this study. They are classified depending on the severity of their wear to three groups: new, worn and damaged nozzles. Those nozzles were spraying with the same application rate (303 l/ha) on two-year field trials; this was achieved by changing the spraying pressure for each group of nozzles in order to get the same application rate. This practice is usually done by operators of sprayers, who calibrate the sprayers on the same application rate every year without changing the nozzles, so they tend to reduce the spraying pressure in order to compensate the flow rate increase due to the nozzles yearly wear. Two types of plant growth regulators (PGR) agents were used in this study, namely: Moddus and Kelpak, they were applied to wheat plants field to reduce lodging. The results showed that applying PGR in the year 2015 produced an increase in the wheat yield and reduction in the plant height regardless the nozzle type, although there was not any occurrence of wheat lodging. In the year 2016, the new nozzles produced higher values of wheat yield than other two types of nozzles.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Agüera F. Nuyttens D. Carvajal F. and Sánchez-Hermosilla J. (2012) Fractal analysis of agricultural nozzles spray. Scientia Agricola69(1) 6-12.
Berry P.M. Sterling M. Spink J.H. Baker C.J. Sylvester-Bradley R. Mooney S.J. Tams A.R. and Ennos A.R. (2004). Understanding and reducing lodging in cereals. Advances in Agronomy84 pp.217-271.
Braekman P. Foque D. Messens W. Van Labeke M.C. Pieters J.G. and Nuyttens D. (2010). Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes. Pest management science66(2) 203-212.
Ebert T.A. and Downer R.A. (2006). A different look at experiments on pesticide distribution. Crop Protection 25(4) 299-309.
Harasim E. Wesołowski M. Kwiatkowski C.A. and Cierpiała R. (2016). Effect of retardants and nitrogen fertilization on winter wheat canopy structure. Romanian Agricultural Research 33 pp.195-203.
Harms C.L. and Oplinger E.S. (1988). Plant growth regulators: their use in crop production. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service.
Huyghebaert B. (2015). Verification of measurement methods of flat fan nozzles working parameters used in agriculture Ph.D Thesis University of Life Sciences in Lublin Poland.
Klein R.N. Kruger G.R. and Golus J.A. (2011). Evaluation of Soybean (Glycine max) Canopy Penetration with Several Nozzle Types and Pressures. INTECH Open Access Publisher.
Knoche M. Bukovac M.J. Nakagawa S. and Crabtree G.D. (1998). Spray application factors and plant growth regulator performance: I. Bioassays and biological response. Pest Management Science 54(2) pp.168-178.
Matthews G.A. (2008). Developments in application technology. The Environmentalist28(1) 19-24.
Rademacher W. (2015). Plant growth regulators: Backgrounds and uses in plant production. Journal of plant growth regulation34(4) 845-872.
Womac A.R. (2001) Atomization characteristics of high-flow variable-orifice flooding nozzles. Transactions of the ASAE44(3) 463-471.