Assessment of Dimensions in Order to Aid Classification of European Red Mite and Two-Spotted Spider Mite by Means of Digital Imaging of Infected Leaves

Paweł J. Konopacki 1  and Wojciech Warabieda 2
  • 1 Department of Agroengineering, Research Institute of Horticulture, , Skierniewice, Poland
  • 2 Department of Plant Protection Against Pests, Research Institute of Horticulture, , Skierniewice, Poland


The methods currently used to assess orchard infestation are time-consuming and do not take into account non-adult forms of mites, due to their small size. Advance in digital imaging technology, however, has resulted in the discovery of a more viable method to enable a fast and reliable assessment of orchard infestation. Digital images of infected apple leaves were made and examined for the presence of European red mites and two-spotted spider mites. As well as adult mites, non-adult European red mite forms were also encountered. After extracting all objects considered as mites from the image, imaging software was then used to assess their dimension and shape parameters. Length, width, area, and equivalent diameter were different for all three observed mite groups: adult female European red mites, possible non-adult European red mites and adult two-spotted spider mites. Differences in circularity and elongation were found in adult two-spotted spider mites and various forms of European red mites, while the perimeter was similar in adult European red mites and two-spotted spider mites, and different in the non-adult forms of European red mites. However, as the ranges of 95% prediction intervals for these features overlap, a combination of at least two features as well as employing statistical procedures may greatly increase the probability of appropriate classification of the observed objects as different mites.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Asquith, D. (1965). Photography in mite counting. Journal of Economic Entomology, 58(4), 677-678.

  • Boczek, J. (1999). Zarys akarologii rolniczej. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.

  • Clotuche, G., Mailleux, A.-C., Deneubourg, J.-L., Detrain, C., Hance, T. (2012). The silk road of Tetranychus urticae: is it a single or a double lane? Experimental and Applied Acarology, 56(4), 345-354.

  • Considine, D. M., Considine, G. D. (1995). Van Nostrand’s Scientific Encyclopedia (8 ed.). Boston, MA: Springer.

  • Czachor, H., Lipiec, J. (2004). Quantification of soil macroporosity with image analysis. International Agrophysics, 18(3), 217-223.

  • Emadzadeh, B., Razavi, S. M., Farahmandfar, R. (2010). Monitoring geometric characteristics of rice during processing by image analysis system and micrometer measurement. International Agrophysics, 24(1), 21-27.

  • Henderson, C. F. (1960). A sampling technique for estimating populations of small arthropods in soil and vegetation. Journal of Economic Entomology, 53(1), 115-121.

  • Henderson, C. F., McBurnie, H. V. (1943). Sampling techniques for determining populations of the red citrus mite and its predators. Circular 671, 1-11. Washington, DC: USDA.

  • Herdan, G., Smith, M. L. (1953). Small particle statistics: An account of statistical methods for the investigation of finely divided materials. With a guide to the experimental design of particle size determinations. Amsterdam-Houston: Elsevier.

  • Konstankiewicz, K., Pawlak, K., Zdunek, A. (2001). Quantitative method for determining cell structural parameters of plant tissues. International Agrophysics, 15(3), 161-164.

  • Majumdar, S., Jayas, D. S. (2000). Classification of cereal grains using machine vision: I. Morphology models. Transactions of the ASAE, 43(6), 1669-1675.

  • Meena, N. K., Rampal, Barman, D., Medhi, R. P. (2013). Biology and seasonal abundance of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, on orchids and rose. Phytoparasitica, 41(5), 597–609.

  • Newcomer, E. J., Yothers, M. A. (1929). Biology of the European red mite in the Pacific Northwest. Technical Bulletin No. 89. Washington, DC: USDA.

  • Nikon. (2008). NIS-Elements BR version 3.10.

  • Sabelis, M. W. (1985). Sampling techniques. In W. Helle, M. W. Sabelis (Eds.), Spider mites: Their biology, natural enemies and control (Vol. 1A, pp. 337-350). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

  • Sircom, J. (2000). Photographic sampling: a photographic sampling methods for mites on plant. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 24(1), 55-61.

  • Tukey, J. W. (1977). Exploratory data analysis. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

  • Zacharda, M., Pultar, O., Muška, J. (1988). Washing technique for monitoring mites in apple orchards. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 5(1-2), 181-183.


Journal + Issues