Vertical Forces Acting on Cultivator Tines in the Aspect of Shearing Speed and Flexibility of Tines


The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of the shearing speed and cultivator tines flexibility on the vertical forces value. The study was carried out in field conditions in sandy clay soil and the average moisture of 11.2%. The vertical forces acting on four “s” tines with flexibility of 0.0061; 0.0711; 0.0953 and 0.1406 m∙kN−1 were measured. Tines were ended with a cultivator point with the curvature radius of 0.17 m. Measurements were made for four shearing speeds (1.0; 1.7; 2.4 and 3.0 m·s−1) and the shearing depth of 11 cm. A stand for measurement of forces acting on soil shearing farm tools in field conditions was used. It was concluded that the shearing speed caused a linear increase of the vertical force but the growth gradient does not depend on the tines flexibility. It was also concluded that the increase in flexibility causes an initial increase and then decrease of the vertical force, which was described with the second degree parabola equation. Flexibilities, at which extremes of courses occur, grow along with the reduction of the shearing speed.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Al-Janobi, A.A.; Wahby, M.F.; Aboukarima, A.M.; Al-Hamed, S.A. (2002). Influence of chisel plow shank shape on horizontal and vertical force requirements. Agricultural Sciences, 7(1), 13-19.

  • Al-Kheer, A.A.; Kharmanda, M.G.; El Hami, A.; Mouazen, A.M. (2011). Estimating the variability of tillage forces on a chisel plough shank by modeling the variability of tillage system parameters. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 78, 61-70.

  • Askari, M.; Shahgholi, G.; Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Y.; Tash-Shamsabadi, H. (2016). The effect of new wings on subsoiler performance. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 32(3), 353-362.

  • Berntsen, R.; Berre, B.; Torp, T.; Aasen, H. (2006). Tine forces established by a two-level model and the draught requirement of rigid and flexible tines. Soil & Tillage Research, 90, 230-241.

  • Chen, Y.; Cavers, C.; Tessier, S.; Monero, F.; Lobb, D. (2005). Short-term tillage effects on soil cone index and plant development in a poorly drained, heavy clay soil. Soil & Tillage Research, 82, 161-171.

  • Davoudi, S.; Alimardani, R.; Keyhani, A.; Atarnejad, R. (2008). A Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of a Plane Tillage Tool in Soil Using a Non-linear Elasto-Plastic Model. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences, 3(3), 498-505.

  • Fenyvesi, L.; Hudoba, Z. (2010). Vibrating Tillage Tools. Soil Engineering. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 31-49.

  • Lejman, K.; Owsiak, Z.; Pieczarka, K.; Molendowski, F. (2015). Methodological aspects of determination of resultant force acting on the cultivator spring tines. Agricultural Engineering, 4(156), 69-78.

  • Lisowski, A.; Klonowski, J.; Green, O.; Świętochowski, A.; Sypuła, M.; Strużyk, A.; Nowakowski, T.; Chlebowski, J.; Kamiński, J.; Kostyra, K.; Mieszkalski, L.; Lauryna, D.; Margielski, J. (2016). Duckfoot tools connected with flexible and stiff tines: Three components of resistances and soil disturbance. Soil & Tillage Research, 158, 76-90.

  • Manuwa, S.I. (2009). Performance evaluation of tillage tines operating under different depths in a sandy clay loam soil. Soil & Tillage Research, 103, 399-405.

  • Przybył, J.; Kowalik, I.; Dach, J.; Zbytek, Z. (2009). Analiza jakości pracy agregatów do uprawy przedsiewnej. Journal of Research and Application in Agriculture Engineering, 4(54), 62-68.

  • Rouw, A.; Huon, S.; Soulileuth, B.; Jouquet, P.; Pierret, A.; Ribolzi, O.; Valentin, C; Bourdon, E.; Chantharath, B. (2010). Possibilities of carbon and nitrogen sequestration under conventional tillage and no-till cover crop farming (Mekong valley, Laos). Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 136, 148-161.

  • Sahu, R.K.; Raheman, H. (2006). An approach for draft prediction of combination tillage implements in sandy clay loam soil. Soil & Tillage Research, 90, 145-155.

  • Sánchez-Girón, V.; Ramırez, J.J.; Litago, J.J.; Hernanz, J.L. (2005). Effect of soil compaction and water content on the resulting forces acting on three seed drill furrow openers. Soil & Tillage Research, 81, 25-37.

  • Shmulevich, I.; Asaf, Z.; Rubinstein, D. (2007). Interaction between soil and a wide cutting blade using the discrete element method. Soil & Tillage Research, 97, 37-50.

  • Talarczyk, W.; Zbytek, Z. (2006). Wpływ głębokości roboczej agregatu do bezorkowej uprawy gleby na obciążenia eksploatacyjne. Inżynieria Rolnicza, 4(79), 303-312.

  • Ucgul, M.; Fielke, J.M.; Saunders, C. (2015). Defining the effect of sweep tillage tool cutting edge geometry on tillage forces using 3D discrete element modeling. Information Processing in Agriculture, 2, 130-141.

  • Wahed, A.; Aboukarima, M. (2007). Draft models of chisel plow based on simulation using artificial neural networks. Misr Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 24(1), 42-61.

  • Zhang, X.; Chen,Y. (2017). Soil disturbance and cutting forces of four different sweeps for mechanical weeding. Soil & Tillage Research, 168, 167-175.


Journal + Issues