Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Chemical Constituents in Cotton/Alfalfa Mixed Culture

Open access

Abstract

A pot experiment was conducted to study the extent of changes occurring in the nutrients, chlorophyll and protein of plants grown in cotton/alfalfa mixed culture as affected by inoculation with indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The experiment consisted of mycorrhizal treatments (with and without AMF inoculation) and three planting patterns (cotton monoculture, alfalfa monoculture, cotton/alfalfa mixed culture). Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculum previously isolated from a rhizospheric soil of cotton, was a mixture of Glomus intraradices, G. viscosum, and G. mosseae. Results showed that total chlorophyll and protein concentrations, and nutrients content were higher in AM cotton plants compared with the non-AM control. Mixed culture had a positive effect on all the above parameters in cotton shoot. The highest values were noted in AM plants in the mixed culture. Improved chemicals and biochemical constituents in cotton led to an increase in dry matter production. The highest dry matter was observed in the AM mixed culture, and was significantly higher by 1.4 times than that of non-AM monoculture.

REFERENCES

  • ARNON, D.I. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts: Polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. In Plant Physiology, vol. 24, pp. 1–15.

  • BOHRER, G. – KAGAN-ZUR, V. – ROTH-BEJERANO, N. – WARD, D. – BECK, G. – BONIFACIO, E. 2003. Effects of different Kalahari-desert VA mycorrhizal communities on mineral acquisition and depletion from the soil by host plants. In Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 55, pp. 193–208. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-1963(03)00047-8

  • CLARK, R.B. – ZETO, S.K. 2000. Mineral acquisition by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. In Journal of Plant Nutrition, vol. 23, pp. 867–902. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904160009382068

  • DERELLE, D. – COURTY, P.E. – DAJOZ, I. – DECLERCK, S. – Van AARLE, I.M. – CARMIGNAC, D. – GENET, P. 2015. Plant identity and density can influence arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization, plant growth, and reproduction investment in coculture. In Botany, vol. 93, no. 7, pp. 405–412. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2014-0180

  • DAVIES, J. – CALDERON, M.C. – HUAMAN, Z. 2005. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae indigenous to peru and a flavonoid on growth, yield, and leaf elemental concentration of yungay potatoes. In HortScience, vol. 40, pp. 381–385.

  • FUKAI, S. – TRENBATH, B.R. 1993. Processes determining intercrop productivity and yields of component crops. In Field Crops Research, vol. 34, pp. 247–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-4290(93)90117-6

  • GAO, Y. – WU, P.T. – ZHAO, X.N. – WANG, Z.K. 2014. Growth, yield, and nitrogen use in the wheat/maize intercropping system in an arid region of north western China. In Field Crops Research, vol. 167, pp. 19–30. DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2014.07.003

  • GHOSH, P.K. – MANNA, M.C. – BANDYOPADHYAY, K.K. – AJAY, A.K. – TRIPATHI, R.H. – WANJARI, KM. et al. 2006. Interspecific interaction and nutrient use in soybean/sorghum intercropping system. In Agronomy Journal, vol. 98, pp. 1097–1108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/agronj2005.0328

  • GIOVANNETTI, M. – MOSSE, B. 1980. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection in roots. In New Phytologist, vol. 84, pp. 489–499. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1980.tb04556.x

  • HAUGGAARD-NIELSEN, H. – GOODING, M. – AMBUS, P. – CORRE-HELLOU, G. – CROZAT, Y. – DAHLMANN, C. et al. 2009. Pea-barley intercropping for efficient symbiotic N2-fixation, soil N acquisition and use of other nutrients in European organic cropping systems. In Field Crops Research, vol. 113, pp. 64–71. DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2009.04.009

  • van der HEIJDEN, M.G.A. – HORTON, T.R. 2009. Socialism in soil? The importance of mycorrhizal fungal networks for facilitation in natural ecosystems. In Journal of Ecology, vol. 97, pp. 1139–1150. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01570.x

  • HERBERT, S.J. – PUTNAM, D.H. – POOS-FLOYD, M.I. – VARGAS, A. – CREIGHTON J.F. 1984. Forage yield of intercropped corn and soybean in various planting patterns. In Agronomy Journal, vol. 76, pp. 507–510. DOI:10.2134/agronj1984.00021962007600040001x

  • IBRAHIM, M. 2010. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the nutrition of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and its tolerance to water stress. PhD, Liege-Gembloux Agro-BioTech. Belgium.

  • JIA, Y. – GRAY, V.M. – STRAKER, C.J. 2004. The Influence of rhizobium and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation by Viciafaba. In Annals of Botany, vol. 94, pp. 251–258. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mch135

  • JONGSCHAAP, R.E.E. – BOOIJ, R. 2004. Spectral measurements at different spatial scales in potato: Relating leaf, plant and canopy nitrogen status. In International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 5, pp. 205–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2004.03.002

  • KHUDER, A. ‒ SAWAN, M.KH. ‒ KARJOU, J. ‒ RAZOUK, A.K. 2009. Determination of trace elements in Syrian medicinal plants and their infusions by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. In Spectrochimica Acta Part B, vol. 64, pp. 721–725. DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2009.05.020

  • KLIRONOMOS, J.N. 2003. Variation in plant response to native and exotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In Ecology, vol. 84, pp. 2292–2301. DOI: 10.1890/02-0413

  • KULANDAIVEL, S.R. – BHOOPATHI, KUMAR, P. – GURUMURTHY, S. 2001. Effect of planting pattern on cotton-based intercropping system. In Annals of Agricultural Research, vol. 22, no 1, pp 64–66.

  • LIU, R.J. – SHEN, C.Y. – QIU, W.F. 1994. The effect of VAM fungi on growth and yield of cotton. In Acta Agriculturae-Universitatis Pekinensis, vol. 20, pp. 88–91.

  • MOHAMMAD, M.J. – PAN, W.L. – KENNEDY, A.C. 2005. Chemical alteration of the rhizosphere of the mycorrhizal-colonized wheat root. In Mycorrhiza, vol. 15, pp. 259–266. DOI: 10.1007/s00572-004-0327-0

  • MOSSE, B. 1986. Mycorrhiza in a sustainable agriculture. In Biology Agriculture and Horticulture, vol. 3, pp.143–152.

  • McDONALD, P. – HENDERSON, A.R. – HERO, S.J.E. 1991. The Biochemistry of Silage. Marlow, UK : Chalcombe publications, pp. 9–340.

  • NAJAFI, N. – MOSTAFAEI, M. – DABBAGH, M.N.A – OUSTAN, S.H. 2013. Effect of intercropping and farmyard manure on the growth, yield and protein concentration of corn, bean and bitter vetch. In Journal of Agricultural Science, vol. 23, no.1, pp. 99–116.

  • PARMAR, P. – PATEL, M.J. – DAVE, B. – SUBRAMANIAN, R.B. 2012. Nickel accumulation by Colocassia esculentum and its impact on plant growth and physiology. In African Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 7, no. 24, pp. 3579–3587.

  • PELLEGRINO, E. – BEDINI, S. 2014. Enhancing ecosystem services in sustainable agriculture: biofertilization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 68, pp. 429–439. DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.09.030

  • REIJNTJES, C. – HAVERKORT, B. – WATERS-BAYER, A. 1992. Farming for the future, an introduction to low-external-input and sustainable agriculture. London, UK : Macmillan Education Ltd, 250 p.

  • RENGEL, Z. 1999. Physiological mechanisms underlying differential nutrient efficiency of crop genotypes. In RENGEL, Z. (Ed.) Mineral nutrition of crop. NY : Food Products Press, pp. 227–266.

  • SAS INSTITUTE INC. 2004. SAS user’s guide: statistics version 9.1.2. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC.

  • SIEVERDING, E. 1991. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza management in tropical agrosystems. Technical cooperation, Germany : Eschborn. pp. 371.

  • SIQUEIRA, J.O. – COLOZZI-FILHO, A. – FARIA, F.H.S. – OLIVEIRA E. 1986. Symbiotic effectiveness of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species in cotton. In Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo, vol. 10, pp. 213–218.

  • SMITH, S.E. – READ, D.J. 1997. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 2nd edition. London, UK : Academic Press. pp. 605.

  • SMITH, S.E. – READ, D.J. 2008. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 3rd edition. Cambridge: Academic Press, UK. pp. 787.

  • SUBRAMANIAN, K.S. – TENSHIA, V. – JAYALAKSHMI, K. – RAMACHANDRAN, V. 2009. Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices) – (fungus aided) in zinc nutrition of maize. In Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology and Sustainable Development, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 029–038. http://www.academicjournals.org/JABSD

  • TILAK, K.V.B.R. – SINGH, C.S. – ROY, N.K – SUBBA RAO, N.S. 1992. Azospirillumbrasilense and Azotobacterchro-coccum inoculum effect on maize and sorghum. In Soil Biology and Biochemistry, vol. 14, pp. 417–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(82)90016-5.

  • TSUBO, M. – WALKER, S. – OGINDO, H.O. 2005. A simulation model of cereal legume intercropping systems for semi-arid regions. Model application. In Field Crops Research, vol. 93, pp. 23–33. DOI:10.1016/j.fcr.2004.09.003

  • VANDERMEER, J.H. 1989. The ecology of intercropping systems. Cambridge : Cambridge university, 237 pp.

  • WAHBI, S. – MAGHRAOUIB, T. – HAFIDI, M. – SANGUIN, H. – OUFDOU, K. – PRIN, Y. – DUPONNOIS, R. – GALIANA, A. 2016. Enhanced transfer of biologically fixed N from fababean to intercropped wheat through mycorrhizal symbiosis. In Applied Soil Ecology, vol. 107, pp. 91–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.05.008

  • WILLY, R.W. 1990. Resource use in intercropping systems. In Journal of Agriculture Water Management, vol. 17, pp. 215–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3774(90)90069-B

  • XIAO, Y. – LI, L. – ZHANG, F. 2004. Effect of root contact on interspecific competition and N transfer between wheat and faba bean using direct and indirect 15N techniques. In Plant and Soil, vol. 262, pp. 45–54. DOI: 10.1023/B:PLSO.0000037019.34719.0d

  • WALDER, F. – NIEMANN, H. – NATARAJAN, M. – LEHMANN, M.F. – BOLLER, T. – WIEMKEN, A. 2012. Mycorrhizal networks: common goods of plants shared under unequal terms of trade. In Plant Physiology, vol. 159, pp. 789–797. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.112.195727

Agriculture (Pol'nohospodárstvo)

The Journal of National Agricultural and Food Centre

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.59

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.196
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.360

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 7 7 7
PDF Downloads 2 2 2