Genetic Diversity in Ficus Sycomorus L. Species (Moraceae) Using Rapd and Irap Markers

Open access


This study was conducted in order to assess accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of the RAPD and IRAP techniques for determining the genetic variability in 10 Ficus sycomorus L. genotypes grown in the coastal regions of Syria. Thirty-six RAPD primers applied gave 352 discernible loci, of which 252 (71.59%) were polymorphic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with 36 RAPD primers gave an average of 9.778 selected markers/primers, with a maximum of 21 (OPA18) and a minimum of five (OPG11, OPK12 and OPT18). The amplification with 22 IRAP primers (single or combination) generated 178 bands, of which 151 (84.83%) were polymorphic, with an average of 11.125 selected markers/ primer, with a maximum of 17 (IRAP-TDK11F) and a minimum of seven (BREP1F+BREP1R, IRAP-TDK1F+IRAP- TDK1R and IRAP-TDK2F+IRAP-TDK2R). In the present investigation, the IRAP marker was more efficient than the RAPD assay, where the latter exhibited a lower marker index (MI) average (1.629) compared with the IRAP technique (2.941). Otherwise, F. sycomor4 genotype showed the highest dissimilarity compared with other genotypes studied in this investigation. Based upon the estimated percent disagreement values (PDV), we can suggest that there are three subspecies present among the 10 samples tested.

  • AKBULUT, M. - ERCISLI, S. - KARLIDAG, H. 2009. APD-based study of genetic variation and relationships among wild fig genotypes in Turkey. In Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 1 109-1115. DOI: 10.4238/vol9-4gmr957 .

  • ALAVI-KIA, S.S. - MOHAMMADI, S.A. - AHARIZAD, S. - MOGHADDAM, M. 2008. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in Crocus genus of Iran using inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism. In Biotechnology and BiotechnologicalEquipment, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 795-800.

  • AL MALKI, A.A.H.S. - ELMEER K.M.S. 2010. Influence of auxin and cytokinine on in vitro multiplication of Ficus anastasia. In African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 635-639. DOI: 10.5897/ AJB09.1168.

  • ARADHYA, M.K. - STOVER, E.D. - VELASCO, D. - KOEHMSTEDT, A. 2010. Genetic structure and differentiation in cultivated fig (Ficus carica L.). In Genetica, vol. 138, pp. 681-694. DOI: 10.1007/ s10709-010-9442-3.

  • BARAKET, G. - CHATTI, K. - SADDOUD, O. - BEN ABDELKARIM, A. - MARS, M. - TRIFI, M. - SAHI HANNACHI, A. 2011. Comparative assessment of SSR and AFLP markers for evaluation of genetic diversity and conservation of fig, Ficus carica L., genetic resources in Tunisia. In Plant Molecular BiologyReporter, vol. 29, pp. 171-184 . DOI: 10.1007/ s11105-010-0217-x.

  • BARKOUDAH, Y. - DARWISH, A.I. - ABI ANTOUN, M. 2000. Biological diversity, National repot. Biodiversity strategy and action plant and report to conference of the parties NBSAP project SY/97/G31. UNDP -GEF.

  • BISWAS, M.K. - XU, O. - DENG, X. 2009. Utility of RAPD, ISSR, IRAP and REMAP markers for genetic analysis of Citrus spp. In Scientia Horticulturae, vol. 124, pp. 245-261 .

  • BOTSTEIN, D. - WHITE, R.L. - SKOLINCK, M. - DAVIS, R.W. 1980. Contraction of a genetic linkage map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. In American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 32, pp. 314-331 .

  • CERQUEIRA-SILVA, C.B.M. - CONCEICAO, L.D.H.C.S. - SANTOS, E.S.L. - CARDOSO-SILVA, C.B. - PEREIRA, A.S. - OLIVEIRA, A.C. - CORREA R.X. 2010. Genetic variability in wild genotypes of Passifloracincinnata based on RAPD markers. In Genetics andMolecular Research, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 2421-2428. DOI: 10.4238/vol9-4gmr981.

  • DALKILIC, Z. - MESTAV, H.O. - GUNVER-DALKILIC, G. - KOCATA, H. 2011. Genetic diversity of male fig (Ficus carica caprificus L.) genotypes with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. In African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 519-526. DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.995.

  • DE MASI, L. - CASTADO, D. - GALANO, G. - MINASI, P. - LARATTA, B. 2005. Genotyping of fig (Ficuscarica L.) via RAPD markers. In Journal of theScience of Food and Agriculture, vol. 85, pp. 2235-2242. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2247.

  • DOYLE, J.J. - DOYLE, J.L. 1987. A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. In Phytochemical Bulletin, vol. 19, 1987, pp. 1 1-15.

  • GUO, D. - Zhang, H. - Luo, Z. 2006. Genetic relationships of Diospyros kaki Thunb. and related species revealed by IRAP and REMAP analysis. In Plant Science, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 528-533. DOI: 10.1016/j. plantsci.2005.10.006.

  • HADIA, H.A. - EL-MOKADEM, H.E. - EL-TAYEB, H.F. 2008. Phylogenetic relationship of four Ficus species using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. In Journal of Applied Sciences Research, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 507-514 .

  • IKEGAMI, H. - NOGATA, H. - HIRASHIMA, K. - AWAMURA, M. - NAKAHARA, T. 2009. Analysis of genetic diversity among European and Asian fig varieties (Ficus carica L.) using ISSR, RAPD, and SSR markers. In Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, vol. 56, pp. 201-209. DOI: 10.1007/s10722-008-9355-5.

  • JACCARD, P. 1908. Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution flora. In Bulletin de la Socíeté Vaudoise desSciences Naturelles, vol. 44, pp. 223-270.

  • MACHADO, C.A. - JOUSSELIN, E. - KJELLBERG, F. - COMPTON, S.G. - HERRE, E.A. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography and character evolution of fig pollinating wasps. In Proceedings ofthe Royal Society, London Biological Science, vol. 268, pp. 7-10.

  • MOUTERDE, P. 1966. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de laSyrie. Vol 1 (Texte), Beyrouth-Liban, pp. 371-372.

  • NAIR, A.S. - TEO, C.H. - SCHWARZACHER, T. - HARRISON, P.H. 2005. Genome classification of banana cultivars from South India using IRAP markers. In Euphytica, vol. 144, no. 3, pp. 285-290. DOI: 10.1007/s10681-005-7321-2.

  • NAZARENO, A.G. - PEREIRA, R.A.S. - FERAS, J.M. - MESTRINER, M.A. - ALZATE-MARIN, A.L. 2009. Transferability and characterization of microsatellite markers in two Neotropical Ficus species. In Geneticsand Molecular Biology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 568-571. DOI: or g/10.1590/S1415-47572009005000056.

  • NOVÁKOVÁ, A. - ŠIMÁČKOVÁ, K. - BÁRTA, J. - ČURN, V. 2009. Potato variety identification by molecular markers based on retrotransposon analyses. In Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1-10.

  • POWELL, W. - MORGANTE, M. - ANDRE, C. - HANAFEY, M. - VOGEL, J. - TINGEY, S. - RAFALSKY, A. 1996. The comparison of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and SSR (microsatellite) markers for germplasm analysis. In Molecular Breeding, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 225-238 . DOI: 10.1007/BF00564200.

  • SAEIDI, H. - RAHIMINEJAD, M.R. - HESLOP-HARRISON, J.S. 2008. Retroelement insertional polymorphisms, diversity and phylogeography within diploid, D-genome Aegilops tauschii (Triticeae, Poaceae) Sub-taxa in Iran. In Annals of Botany, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 855-861 . DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcn042.

  • SALEH, B. 2011. Efficiency of RAPD and ISSR markers in assessing genetic variation in Arthrocnemummacrostachyum (Chenopodiaceae). In Brazilian Archivesof Biology and Biotechnology, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 859-866 .

  • SALHI-HANNACHI, A. - CHATTI, K. - SADDOUD, O. - MARS, M. - RHOUMA, A. - MARRAKCHI, M. - TRIFI, M. 2006. Genetic diversity of different Tunisian fig (Ficus carica L.) collections revealed by RAPD fingerprints. In Hereditas, vol. 143, pp. 15-22 .

  • SINGH, D.R. - SRIVASTAVA, A.K. - SRIVASTAVA, A. - SRIVASTAVA, R.C. 2011. Genetic diversity among three Morinda species using RAPD and ISSR markers. In Indian Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 285-293 .

  • SMÝKAL, P. - BAČOVÁ-KERTESZOVÁ, N. - KALENDAR, R. - CORANDER, J. - SCHULMAN, A.H. - PAVELEK, M. 2011. Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers. In Theoretical andApplied Genetics, vol. 122, no. 7, pp. 1385-1397. DOI: 10.1007/s00122-01 1-1539-2.

  • STATSOFT, 2003. Statistica (Data analysis software system), version 6. Statsoft Inc.

  • WEIBLEN, G.D. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of functionally dioecious Ficus (Moraceae) based on ribosomal DNA sequence and morphology. In AmericanJournal of Botany, vol. 87, no. 9, pp. 1342-1357. DOI: 10.2307/2656726.

  • WILLIAMS, J.G.K. - KUBELIK, A.R. - LIVAK, K.J. - RAFALSKI, J.A. - TINGEY, S.V. 1990. DNA Polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. In Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 18, no. 22, pp. 653l-6535.

  • ZOHARY, M. 1962. Plant life of Palestine. The Ronald Press Co. : New York-USA, 262 pp .

  • ZOHARY, M. 1973. Geobotanical foundation of MiddleEast. Gustav Fischer Verlag : Stuttgart-Germany, 739 pp.

Agriculture (Pol'nohospodárstvo)

The Journal of National Agricultural and Food Centre

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.59

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.196
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.360


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 9 9 9
PDF Downloads 2 2 2