Syrian oregano (Origanum syriacum L., Lamiaceae) is a very popular culinary herb that has been used through the ages in traditional medicine mainly in Lebanon and the Arab world. The subject of this study was the microscopic analysis of the herbal drug Origani syriaci folium, as well as the chemical analysis of its essential oil components. Plant materials originated from Arabsalim - South Lebanon and were collected in 2010. The presence of very dense clusters of multicellular covering trichomes (510 μm × 18.47 μm) and peltate secretory glands (∅ 87.95 μm) with eight cells were observed. The essential oil of Origani syriaci folium was isolated and quantified using hydrodistillation according to SPhC 1997. The content of essential oil was 95 ml/1000 g, i.e. 9.5% (V/m). The volatile constituents of Origani syriaci folium were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using SPME GC/MS. The two dominant constituents identified in Syrian oregano leaves were carvacrol (78.4%) and thymol (17.9%).
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Abou-Jawdah Y, Sobh H, Salameh A. Antimycotic activities of selected plant flora, growing wild in Lebanon, against phytopathogenic fungi. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:3208-3213.
Abou-Jawdah Y, Wardan R, Sobh H, Salameh A. Antifungal activities of extracts from selected Lebanese wild plants against plant pathogenic fungi. Phytopathol Mediter. 2004;43:377-386.
Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā. Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb - The Canon of Medicine. Rome; 1593. p. 221-227 (in Arabic).
Al-Kalaldeh JZ, Abu-Dahab R, Afifi FU. Volatile oil composition and antiproliferative activity of Laurus nobilis, Origanum syriacum, Origanum vulgare, and Salvia triloba against human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Nutr Res. 2010;30:271-278.
Alma MH, Mavi A, Yildirim A, Digrak M, Hirata T. Screening chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from Origanum syriacum L. growing in Turkey. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003;26:1725-1729.
Baser KHC, Kurkcuoglu M, Demirci B, Ozek T. The essential oil of Origanum syriacum L. var. sinaicum (Boiss.) Ietswaart. Flavour Frag J. 2003;18:98-99.
Baser KHC, Ozek T, Tumen G, Sezik E. Composition of the essential oils of Turkish Origanum species with commercial importance. JEOR. 1993;5:619-623.
Cantino PD, Harley RM, Wagstaff SJ. Genera of Labiatae: Status and Classification, In Harley RM, Reynolds T (eds.). Advances in Labiatae Science. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens; 1992. p. 511-555.
Codex Pharmaceuticus Slovacus. 1st ed. Bratislava: Herba; 1997, 354 p (in Slovak).
Daouk R, Dagher S, Sattout E. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Origanum syriacum L. J Food Protect. 1995;58:1147-1149.
Dāwūd ibn ‘Umar al-Anṭākī. Tadkirat ūlī al-albāb wa-al-jāmi‘ li-al-‘ajab al-‘ujāb. Al-Maktaba Al- Thaqafiya. Beirut; 1986 (in Arabic).
Erdtman G. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. IV. Labiatae, Verbenaceae and Avicenniaceae. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift. 1945;39:277-285.
European Pharmacopoeia. 7th ed. Strasbourg: Council of Europe; 2011.
Farhat M. Phytochemical analysis of Lebanese za'atar [Thesis for the PharmDr. degree]. Bratislava: Comenius University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany; 2012.
Galambosi B, Galambosiné Szebeni Zs, Héthelyi BÉ, Szarka Sz. The common oregano red and white flowers volatile matter content and components. J Oil Soap Cosmet. 2010;59:89-95 (in Hungarian).
Héthelyi BÉ, Szarka Sz, Galambosi B, Lemberkovics É, Szőke É. Finland cultivated medicinal, spices and aromatic plants - phytochemical analysis with modern instrumental analysis (GC, GC/MS, SPME-GC/MS) method. Paper presented at: 18th Workshop on Plant Breeding. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. March 6, 2012; Budapest, H., p. 48 (in Hungarian).
Héthelyi BÉ, Szarka Sz, Galambosi B. The Finnish-Hungarian scientific cooperation in specific areas: Finland cultivated medicinal herbs and aromatic plants, their plant chemical analysis by GC, GC/MS, and SPME-GC/MS methods. J Oil Soap Cosmet. 2011;60(suppl):73-88 (in Hungarian).
Kintzios SE. Oregano: The Genera Origanum and Lippia. 1st ed. Taylor & Francis; 2004.
Loizzo MR, Menichini F, Conforti F, Tundis R, Bonesi M, Saab AM. Chemical analysis, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticholinesterase activities of Origanum ehrenbergii Boiss and Origanum syriacum L. essential oils. Food Chem. 2009;117:174-180.
Seidemann J. World Spice Plants: Economic Usage, Botany, Taxonomy. 1st ed. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2005.
Zein S, Awada S, Rachidi S, Hajj A, Krivoruschko E, Kanaan H. Chemical analysis of essential oil from Lebanese wild and cultivated Origanum syriacum L. (Lamiaceae) before and after flowering. J Med Plants Res. 2011;5:379-387.