Physical Activity in Adolescent with Mental Retardation: Is Adapted Basketball Training Adequate Stimulus to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Sport Skills Performance?

Open access

Summary

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an adapted basketball training program on the cardiorespiratory fitness and sport skills performance of adolescents with mental retardation (MR). Fifty adolescents with mild MR who participated in this study were divided in two groups. Experimental group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.7 ± 0.9 years) performed the adapted training program, four times per week during eight weeks. A control group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.9 ± 0.8 years) followed ordinary physical education classes and continued with their normal lifestyle. Exercise testing included the six-minute walk test (6MWT), monitoring of heart rate frequency and sport skills performance test battery.

Results showed a significant difference between groups pre- and post-treatment in 6MWT distance. The experimental group experienced a 10% increase in covered distance pre- to post-testing (p < 0.05), whereas controls had no significant changes in the same period. Conducted adapted training also resulted in significant improvement in examined sport skills performance. However, this kind and duration of experimental procedure did not result in significant differences in anthropometric variables and heart rate frequency. This study demonstrated that adapted basketball training is an adequate stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness and sport skills performance of adolescents with mild MR. The advantage of this type of adaptive training program is that it does not require a large financial input, but only the engagement of a qualified and dedicated physical education professor.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Carmeli E Barchad S Lenger R Coleman R. Muscle power locomotor performance and flexibility in aging mentally-retarded adults with and without Down’s syndrome. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 2002;2(5):457-62. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/15758414

  • 2. Cowley PM Ploutz-Snyder LL Baynard T at al. Physical fitness predicts functional tasks in individuals with Down syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010;42(2):388-93. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/19927019

  • 3. Chanias AK Reid G Hoover ML. Exercise effects on health related physical fitness of individuals with an intellectual disability: A meta-analysis. Adapt PhysActiv Q1998;15(2):119-40. http://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/abs/10.1123/apaq.15.2.119

  • 4. Graham A Reid G. Physical Fitness of adults with an intellectual disability: A 13-year follow-up study. Res Q Exerc Sport2000;71(2):152-61 https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ612252

  • 5. Strong W Malina RM Blimkie CJR. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. JPediatric 2005;146(6):732-37. http://pubmed.cn/15973308

  • 6. Pitetti K Beets M Combs C. Physical activity levels of children with intellectual disabilities during school. Med Sci Sports Exerc2009; 41(8): 1580-86. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19568202

  • 7. Kozub FM. Explaining physical activity in individuals with mental retardation: An exploratory study. Educ Train DevDisabil2003;38(3):302-13. http://www.jstor.org/stable/23879829

  • 8. King M Shields N Imms C Black M Ardern C. Participation of children with intellectual disability compared with typically developing children. Res DevDisabil2013;34(5):1854-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23528443

  • 9. Rimmer JH Heller T WangE Valerio I. Improvements in physical fitness in adults with Down syndrome. Am JMentRetard2004;109(2):165-74. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15000673

  • 10. Howie EK Barnes TL McDermott S et al. Availability of physical activity resources in the environment for adults with intellectual disabilities. Disabil Health J 2012;5(1):41-48. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S193665741100094X

  • 11. Lloyd M Temple VA FoleyJT. International BMI comparison of children and youth with intellectual disabilities participating in Special Olympics. Res Dev Disabil 2012;33(6):1708-14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891422212001060

  • 12. Schreuer N Sachs D RosenblumS. Participation in leisure activities: Differences between children with and without physical disabilities. ResDev Dis2014;35(1):223-33. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891422213004381

  • 13. Pan CY Liu CW Chung IC Hsu PJ. Physical activity levels of adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities during physical education and recess. Res Dev Dis2015;36:579-86. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891422214004569

  • 14. Carmeli E Zinger-Vaknin T Morad M Merrick J. Can physical training have an effect on well-being in adults with mild intellectual disability? Mech Ageing Dev2005;126(2):299-304. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047637404002039

  • 15. Lahtinen U Rintala P Malin A. Physical performance of individuals with intellectual disability: A 30 year follow up. Adapt PhysActiv Q2007; 24(2): 125-43. http://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/abs/10.1123/apaq.24.2.125

  • 16. Hale L Bray A Littmann A. Assessing the balance capabilities of people with profound intellectual disabilities who have experienced a fall. J Intellect Disabil Res2007;51(4):260-68. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2788.2006.00873.x/full

  • 17. Beadle-Brown J Murphy G Wing L et al. Changes in skills for people with intellectual disability: A follow-up of the Camberwell Cohort. J Intellect Disabil Res2000;44(1):12-24. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/10711646

  • 18. Ozmen T Ryildirim N Yuktasir B Beets MW. Effects of school-based cardiovascular-fitness training in children with mental retardation. Pediatr ExercSci2007;19(2):171-78. http://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/abs/10.1123/pes.19.2.171

  • 19. Stanisic Z Beric D Bojic I Nurkic M Kocic M. The effects of specially adapted basketball training program in adolescents with mental retardation: a pilot study. Serb JSports Sci2012;6(3):89-93. https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20123331689

  • 20. Stanisic Z Kocic M Aleksandrovic M et al. The effects of an adapted basketball training program on the physical fitness of adolescents with mental retardation: a pilot study. Serb JexpClin Res2012; 13(3):103-7. http://scindeks.ceon.rs/Article.aspx?artid=1820-86651203103S

  • 21. Eston R Reilly T. Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual: Tests procedures and data. Volume 2: Exercise physiology New York 2002: Routhledge.

  • 22. American Thoracic Society. ATS statement: Guidelines for the six-minute walk test. Am J RespirCrit Care Med2002; 166 (1): 111-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm.166.1.at1102

  • 23. Enright PL. The six-minute walk test. Respir Care 2002; 48 (8): 783-85. http://rc.rcjournal.com/content/48/8/783

  • 24. Elmahgoub SM Lambers S Stegen S et al. The influence of combined exercise training on indices of obesity physical fitness and lipid profile in overweight and obese adolescents with mental retardation. EurJ Pediatrics2009; 168 (11): 1327-33. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00431-009-0930-3

  • 25. Guidetti L Franciosi E Emerenziani GP et al. Assessing basketball ability in players with mental retardation. Br J Sports Med2009; 43 (3): 208-12. http://bjsm.bmj.com/content/43/3/208

  • 26. Baldari C Franciosi E Gallota MC et al. Using basketball test battery to monitor players with mental retardation across two sports seasons. J Strength Cond Res2009;23(8):2345-50. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/19826289

  • 27. Fernhall BO Pitetti KH Rimmer JH at al. Cardio respiratory capacity of individuals with mental retardation including Down syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc1996; 28 (3): 366-71. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/8776225

  • 28. Fernhall B McCubbin JA Pitetti KH et al. Prediction of maximal heart rate in individuals with mental retardation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001; 33(10):1655-60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11581548

  • 29. Hove O. Weight survey on adult persons with mental retardation living in the community. Res DevDisabil2004; 25 (1): 9-17. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891422203000908

  • 30. Draheim CC Williams DP Mccubbin JA. Physical activity dietary intake and the insulin resistance syndrome in nondiabeticadults with mental retardation. Am JMentRetard2002; 107(5): 361-75. http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/12186577

  • 31. Dong WK Greenough WT. Plasticity of non-neuronal brain tissue: roles in developmental disorders. Ment Retard DevDisabil Res Rev 2004; 10 (2): 85-90. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mrdd.20016/ful

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


Cite Score 2018: 0.33

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.134
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.287

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 540 255 6
PDF Downloads 343 212 17