Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Dried Flowers of Moringa oleifera in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Open access


This study was undertaken to determine the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of oral administration of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleiferaflower on stretozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b.w.

Thirty (30) male experimental albino rats were grouped randomly into six groups: groups A, B, and F are the control, diabetic control and reference drug groups, while C-E received 100, 200, and 300mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively. Blood samples and organs were collected to assay for blood glucose level and antioxidant enzymes.

Levels of blood glucose, serum lipids and lipid peroxidation as well as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in STZ-induced diabetic rats orally administered ethanolic extract of M. oleifera flower. However, the body weight; catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased (p < 0.05) when compared with the controls.

M. oleifera flower ethanolic extract administered orally therefore exhibited improved lipid metabolism, glucose-lowering potential and is hence beneficial in preventing diabetic complications as a result of lipid peroxidation and oxidative systems in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It could thus be employed therapeutically in managing diabetes mellitus.

1. Gandhipuram P, Sentil K, PalanisamyA et al. Antidiabetic Activity of fruits of Terminaliachebula on STZ induced diabetic rats. JHealthSci 2006; 52: 283-91.

2. Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res ClinPract 2010; 87:4-14.

3. Barik R, Jain S, Qwatra D et al. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous root extract of Ichnocarpusfrutescens in STZ-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes in rats. Indian JPharmacol. 2008; 40: 19-22.

4 Vincent AM, Russell JW, Low P et al. Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. ndocr. Rev. 2004; 25: 612-28.

5. Pari L, Latha M. Antidiabetic effect of Scopariadulcis: effect on lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin diabetes. enPhysiolBiophys.2005; 24: 13-26.

6. Heim KE, Tagliaferro AR, Bobilya DJ. Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure activity relationships. J NutrBiochem. 2002;13:572- 584.

7. Picton SF, Flatt PR, McClenghanNH. Differential acute and long term actions of succinic acid monomethyl ester exposure on insulin secreting BRAIN-BD 11 cells.IntJExpDiab Res 2001; 2: 19-27.

8. Iqbal S, Bhanger M. Effect of season and production location on antioxidant activity of Moringaoleifera leaves grown in Pakistan. J Food Comp Anal. 2006;19:544-51.

9. Arise RO, Aderounmu IG, Oguntibeju OO. Lipid Profile, Antidiabetic and Antioxidant activity of Acacia ataxacantha Bark extract in Streptozotozin-induced Diabetic Rats. Intech Open Science/Open Minds 2014

10. Arise RO, Malomo SO, Adebayo JO, et al. Effects of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus globules on lipid peroxidation and selected enzymes of rat liver. J Med Plant Res. 2009: 077-081.

11. Fahey JW, Haristoy X, Dolan PM, et al. Sulforaphane inhibits extracelular, intracellular, and antibiotic-resistant strains of helicobacter pylori and prevents benzo (a) pyrene induced stomach tumours. ProcNatlAcadSci U.S.A 2002; 99: 7610-15.

12. Guevara AP, Vargas C, Sakurai H. An antitumor promoter from M. oleifera Lam. Mutat Res 1999; 440:181 - 8.

13. Akhtar AH, Ahmad KU. Anti-ulcerogenic evaluation of the methanolic extract of some indigenous medicinal plants of Pakistan in aspirin-ulcerated rats. J Ethnopharmacol.1995; 46: 1-6.

14. Rao CV, Ojha SK. Analgesic effect of Moringaoleifera Lam., leaf extract on rats, 2nd World congress on Biotechnological Developments of Herbal Medicine: Luck Now. India:NBRI 2003:42

15. Bennett RN, Mellon FA, Foidl N et al. Profiling glucosinolates and Phenolics in Vegetative and Reproductive tissues of the multi-purpose trees Moringaoleifera L. (Horseradish tree) and Moringastenppetala L. JAgric Food Chem. 2003; 51: 3546-53.

16. Sharma P, Kumari P, Srivastava MM et al. Removal of cadmium from aqueous system by shelled M. oleifera Lam. seed powder. Bioresour Technol. 2006; 97:299 - 305.

17. Makonnen E, Hunde A, Damecha G. Hypoglycaemic effect of M. stenopetala aqueous extract in rabbits. Phytother Res. 1997; 11:147-8.<147::AID-PTR41>3.0.CO;2-V

18. Pal SK, Mukherjee PK, Saha BP. Studies on the antiulcer activity of M. oleifera leaf extract on gastric ulcer models in rats. Phytother.Res 1995; 9:463-5.

19. Caceres A, Saravia A, Rizzo S et al. Pharmacological properties of Moringaoleifera 2: Screening for antispasmodic, anti-inflammatoy and diuretic activity. J. Ethno-pharmacol 1992; 36:233 - 237.

20. Morton JF. The horse radish tree: M. pterigosperma (Moringacea). A boon to arid lands.Economic Botany 1991; 45:318 - 33.

21. Dahot MU. Vitamin contents of flowers and seeds of M. oleifera.Pak. JBiochem 1988; 21:1 -24.

22. Mehta LK, Balaraman R, Amin AH et al. Effects of fruits of M. oleifera on the lipid profile of normal and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. JEthnopharmacol 2003; 86:191 - 5.

23. Ruckmani, K, Kavimani S, Anandan R et al. Effect of Moringaoleifera Lam on paracetamol - induced hepatoxicity. Indian J. Pharm. Sci 1998; 60:33 - 5.

24. Nickon F, Saud ZA, Rehman MH et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the compound isolated from chloroform extract of M. oleifera Lam. Pak. JBiol Sci. 2003; 22:1888- 1890.

25. Kumar PS, Mishra D, Ghosh G et al. Medicinal uses and pharmacological properties of Moringaoleifera. Int. J. Phytomed 2010; 2: 210-16.

26. Amaglo NK, Bennett RN, Lo Curto RB et al. Profiling selected phytochemicals and nutrients in different tissues of the multipurpose tree Moringaoleifera L., grown in Ghana. Food Chem 2010; 122: 1047-54.

27. Gowrishankar R, Kumar M, Menon V et al. Trace element studies on Tinospora cordifolia (Menispermaceae), Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae), M. oleifera (Moringaceae), and Phyllanthus niruri (Euphorbiaceae) using PIXE. Biol Trace Elem Res 2010; 133: 357-63.

28. Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa.2nd edition. Spectrum Books Limited (Publisher), Ibadan, Nigeria, 1993: 134-56.

29. Jiang ZY, Hunt JV, Woff SP. Ferrous ion oxidation in the presence of xylenol orange for detection of lipid peroxide in low density lipoprotein.Anal Biochem 1992; 202:384-9.

30. Aebi H. In: Bergmeyer HU, (ed). Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. New York: Chemic Academic Press, 1974: 673-85.

31. Misra H, Fridovich I. The Role of Superoxide Anion in the Autooxidation of Epinephrine and a Simple Assay for Superoxide Dismutase, J BiolChem 1972; 247-3170.

32. Wright PJ.,Leathwood PD, Plummer DT. Enzymes in rat urine Alkaline phosphatase. Enzvmologia 1972; 42: 317-327.

33. Mahajan BK. Significance of difference in means in methods in Biostatic for Medical Works, 6th Edition. New Delhi JAYPEE Brothers Medical Publisher, 1997: 130-55.

34. Coman C, Rugina OD, Socaciu C. Plants and natural compounds with antidiabetic action.Not Bot HortiAgrobo. 2012; 40(1): 314-25.

35. Ghada Z, Soliman A. Anti-Diabetic Activity of Dried Moringaoleifera Leaves in Normal and Streptozotocin (Stz)-Induced Diabetic Male Rats. Indian J.A.R. 2013; 3:18-22

36. Ojowole, JOA. Hypoglycemic effect of Clausenaanisata( Willd) hook methanolic root extract in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 81: 231-7.

37. Tende JA, Ezekiel I, Dikko AAU et al. Effect of Ethanolic Leaves Extract of Moringaoleifera on Blood Glucose Levels of Streptozocin-Induced Diabetics and NormoglycemicWistar Rats. Br J.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2011; 2: 1-4.

38. Rajasekaran S, Sivagnanam K, Subramanian S. Antioxidant effect of Aloe vera gel extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Pharmacol. Rep 2005; 57: 90-6.

39. Doda RF. Diabetic mellitus, In: Kaplan LA, Amadeo JP, (eds). Clinical Chemistry. St Louis: Mosby Year Book, 1996: 613-41.

40. Siddhuraju P and Becker K. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringaoleifera Lam.) leaves. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51: 2144-55.

41. Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK et al. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants. Int J Food SciNutr 2005; 56: 287-91.

42. Lamarche B, Tchernof A, Moorjni S et al. Small, dense, low-density lipoprotein particles as a predictor of the risk of ischemic heart disease in men: Prospective results from the Quebec Cardiovascular study. Circulation 1997; 95: 69-75.

43. Sivajothi, V, Dey,A; Jayakar,B,Rajkapoor B. Antihyperglycemic property of Tragiacannabina in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Med. Food 2007; 10:361-5.

44. Garella S. The cost of dialysis in the USA.Nephrol. Dial. Transplant 1997; 12:10-21.

Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis

The Journal of Faculty of Medicine in Nis

Journal Information

Cite Score 2017: 0.27

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.140
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.240

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 277 212 14
PDF Downloads 109 96 10