Histamine and Antihistamines / Histamin i antihistamini

Open access


In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Allergic immune response represents a complex network of cellular events involving numerous immune cells and mediators. It represents the interaction of innate and acquired immune response. The key role in the immune cascade is taken by histamine, a natural component of the body, which in the allergic inflammatory response is releasesd by the mast cells and basophils. The aim of this study was to highlight the role of histamine in allergic immunological events, their effect on Th1 and Th2 subpopulation of lymphocytes and the production of the corresponding cytokines, as well as the role of histamine blockers in the treatment of these conditions.

Histamine achieves its effect by binding to the four types of its receptors, which are widely distributed in the body. Histamine blockers block a numerous effects of histamine by binding to these receptors. As a highly selective second-generation antihistamine, cetirizine not only achieves its effects by binding to H1 receptors, but also attenuates numerous events during the inflammatory process. Knowledge of the effects of histamine blockers, including cetirizine, may lead to the selection of proper therapy for the treatment of allegic diseases.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Pearlman DS. Pathophysiology of the inflammatory response. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1999 ;104(4 Pt 1):132-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(99)70308-8

  • 2. Wang M Takeda K Shiraishi Y et al. Peanutinduced intestinal allergy is mediated through a mast cell-IgE- FcepsilonRI-IL-13 pathway. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2010; 126(2):306-16 316 e1-12.

  • 3. Akdis CA. Allergy and hypersensitivity: mechanisms of allergic disease. Curr Opin Immunol 2006; 18(6):718-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2006.09.016

  • 4. Akdis M Akdis CA. Mechanisms of allergenspecific immunotherapy. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2007; 119(4):780-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2007.01.022

  • 5. Akdis MBurgler S Crameri R et al. Interleukins from 1 to 37 and interferon-gamma: Receptors functions and roles in diseases. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2011; 127(3):701-21 e70.

  • 6. Akkoc T Akdis M Akdis CA: Update in the mechanisms of allergen-specific immunotheraphy. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2011; 3(1):11-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2006.06.003

  • 7. Akdis M: Healthy immune response to allergens.T regulatory cells and more.Curr Opin Immunol 2006; 18(6):738-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2006.06.003

  • 8. Iwakura YIshigame H Saijo S Nakae S. Functional specialization of interleukin-17 family members. Immunity 2011; 34(2):149-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2011.02.012

  • 9. Wang YH Angkasekwinai P Lu N et al. IL-25 augments type 2 immune responses by enhancing the expansion and functions of TSLP-DCactivated Th2 memory cells. J Exp Med 2007; 204(8):1837-47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20070406

  • 10. Goswami SAngkasekwinai P Shan M et al. Divergent functions for airway epithelial matrix metalloproteinase 7 and retinoic acid in experimental asthma. Nat Immunol 2009; 10(5):496-503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.1719

  • 11. Bilsborough J Leung DY Maurer M et al. IL-31 is associated with cutaneous lymphocyte antigenpositive skin homing T cells in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2006; 117(2):418-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2005.10.046

  • 12. Dillon SR Sprecher C Hammond A et al. Interleukin 31 a cytokine produced by activated T cells induces dermatitis in mice. Nat Immunol 2004; 5(7):752-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni1084

  • 13. Kakkar R Lee RT. The IL-33/ST2 pathway: therapeutic target and novel biomarker. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2008; 7(10):827-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrd2660

  • 14. Liew FY Pitman NI McInnes IB. Diseaseassociated functions of IL-33: t he n ew k id i n t he IL-1 family. Nat Rev Immunol 2010; 10(2):103-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nri2692

  • 15. Akkoc T de Koning PJ Ruckert B et al. Increased activation-induced cell death of high IFN-gammaproducing T(H)1 cells as a mechanism of T(H)2 predominance in atopic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008; 121(3):652-8 e1.

  • 16. Meyer N Zimmermann M Burgler S et al. IL-32 is expressed by human primary keratinocytes and modulates keratinocyte apoptosis in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2010; 125(4):858-65 e10.

  • 17. Solarewicz-Madejek KBasinski TM Crameri R et al. T cells and eosinophils in bronchial smooth muscle cell death in asthma. ClinExp Allergy 2009; 39(6):845-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03244.x

  • 18. Trautmann A Akdis M Kleemann D et al. T cellmediated Fas-induced keratinocyte apoptosis plays a key pathogenetic role in eczematous dermatitis. J Clin Invest 2000; 106(1):25-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI9199

  • 19. Trautmann A Schmid-Grendelmeier P Kruger K et a l. T c ells a nd e osinophils c ooperate i n t he induction of bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis in asthma. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2002; 109(2):329-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mai.2002.121460

  • 20. Zimmermann M Koreck A Basinski T et al. TNFlike w eak i nducer o f a poptosis ( TWEAK) a nd TNF-alpha cooperate in the induction of keratinocyte apoptosis. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2011; 127(1):200-7 207 e1-10.

  • 21. Canonica GW Blaiss M. Antihistaminic antiinflammatory and antiallergic properties of the nonsedating second-generation antihistamine desloratadine: a review of the evidence. World Allergy Organ J. 2011;4(2):47-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182093e19

  • 22. Haas H Panula P. T he role of histamine and the tuberomamillary nucleus in the nervoussystem. Nat Rev Neurosci 2003;4:121-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrn1034

  • 23. Yokoyama H. The role of central histaminergic neuron system as an anticonvulsive mechanism in developing brain. Brain Dev 2001; 23:542-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0387-7604(01)00261-3

  • 24. Broid DH Gleich GJ Cuomo AJ et al. Evidence of ongoing mast cell and eosinophil degranulation in symptomatic asthma airway. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1991; 88: 637- 48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-6749(91)90158-K

  • 25. Casale TB Wood D Richerson HB et al. Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid histamine levels in allergic asthmatics are associated with methacholine bronchial hyperresponsiveness. J Clin Invest. 1987; 79:1197-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI112937

  • 26. Jarjour NN Calhoun WJ Schwartz LB Busse WW. Elevated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid histamine levels in allergic asthmatics are associated with increased airway obstruction. Am. Rev.Respir. Dis.1991; 144: 83-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/144.1.83

  • 27. Liu MC Bleecker ER Lichtenstein LM et al. Evidence for elevated levels of histamine prostaglandin D2 and other bronchoconstricting prostaglandins in the airways of subjects with mild asthma. Am. Rev.Resp. Dis.1990; 142:126-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/142.1.126

  • 28. Wardlaw AJ Dunnette S Gleich GJ et al. Eosinophils and mast cells in bronchoalveolar lavage in subjects with mild asthma. Relationship to bronchial hyperreactivity.Am. Rev.Respir. Dis. 1988; 137: 62-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/137.1.62

  • 29. Wenzel SE Fowler AA 3rd Schwartz LB. Activation of pulmonary mast cells by bronchoalveolar allergen challenge. In vivo release of histamine and tryptase in atopic subjects with and without asthma.Am. Rev.Respir. Dis.1988; 137:1002- 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/ajrccm/137.5.1002

  • 30. Johnson HH Jr DeOreo GA Lascheid WP Mitchell F. Skin histamine levels in chronic atopic dermatitis. J. Invest.Dermatol. 1960; 34:237-8 (1960).

  • 31. Juhlin L. Localization and content of histamine in normal and diseased skin. ActaDerm.Venereal. 1967; 47: 383-91.

  • 32. Greaves MW Soendergaard J. Urticariapigmentosa and factitious urticaria. Arch Dermatol. 1970;101: 418-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archderm.1970.04000040040009

  • 33. Kaplan AP Horakova Z Katz SI. Assessment of tissue fluid histamine levels in patients with urticaria. J. Allergy Clin.Immunol. 1978; 61:350-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-6749(78)90113-6

  • 34. Tuomisto L Kilpelainen H Riekkinen P. Histamine and histamine‑N‑methyltransferase in the CSF of patients with multiple sclerosis. Agents Actions 1983; 13:255-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01967346

  • 35. Petersen LJ Hansen U Kristensen JK et al. Studies on mast cells and histamine release in psoriasis: the effect of ranitidine. ActaDerm.Venereol. 1998; 78:190-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000155598441503

  • 36. Frewin DB Cleland LG Jonsson JR Robertson PW. Histamine levels in human synovial fluid. J.Rheumatol.1986; 13:13-4.

  • 37. Crisp AJ. Studies of histamine in the rheumatoid joint.Rheumatol.Int. 1984; 4:125-8 (1984).

  • 38. Akdis CA Blaser K. Histamine in the immune regulation of allergic inflammation. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2003; 112:15-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mai.2003.1585

  • 39. MacGlashan D Jr. Histamine: a mediator of inflammation. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2003; 112:Suppl 4:53-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(03)01877-3

  • 40. Schneider E Rolli-Derkinderen M Arock M Dy M. Trends in histamine research: new functions during immune responses and hematopoiesis. Trends Immunol 2002;23:255-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1471-4906(02)02215-9

  • 41. Le Coniat M Traiffort E Ruat M et al. Chromosomal localization of the human histamine H1-receptor gene. Hum Genet 1994;94:186-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00202867

  • 42. Gantz I Schaffer M DelValle J et al. Molecular cloning of a gene encoding the histamine H2 receptor. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A 1991;88:429-33. [Erratum ProcNatlAcadSci U S A 1991;88:5937.] http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.13.5937a

  • 43. Oda T M orikawa N S aito Y e t a l. M olecular cloning and characterization of a novel type of histamine receptor preferentially expressed in leukocytes. J BiolChem 2000;275:36781-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M006480200

  • 44. Lovenberg TW Roland BL Wilson SJ et al. Cloning and functional expression of the human histamine H3 receptor. Mol Pharmacol 1999;55:1101-7.

  • 45. Bakker RA Schoonus SB Smit MJ et al. Histamine H1-receptor activation of nuclear factor-kappa B: roles for G beta gamma- and G alpha(q/11)- subunits in constitutive and agonist-mediated signaling. MolPharmacol 2001;60:1133-42.

  • 46. Arrang JM Garbarg M Schwartz JC et al. Autoinhibition of brain histamine release mediated by a novel class (H3) of histamine receptor. Nature 1983; 302:832-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/302832a0

  • 47. Hall IP. Pharmacogenetics of asthma.EurRespir J 2000;15:449-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3003.2000.15.04.x

  • 48.Banu Y Watanabe T. Augmentation of antigen receptor-mediated responses by histamine H1 receptor signaling. J Exp Med 1999;189:673-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.189.4.673

  • 49. Yanai K Son LZ Endou M et al. Targeting disruption of histamine H1 receptors in mice: behavioral and neurochemical characterization. Life Sci 1998;62:1607-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(98)00115-5

  • 50. Leurs R Church MK Taglialatela M. H1- antihistamines: inverse agonism anti-inflammatory actions and cardiac effects. ClinExp Allergy. 2002;32:489- 98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0954-7894.2002.01314.x

  • 51. Bakker RA Wieland K Timmerman H Leurs R. Constitutive activity of the histamine H(1) receptor reveals inverse agonism of histamine H1 receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;387:R5-R7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2999(99)00803-1

  • 52. Labella FS Brandes LJ. Interaction of histamine and other bio-amines with cytochromes P450: implications for cell growth modulation and chemopotentiation by drugs. Semin. Cancer Biol2000; 10:47-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/scbi.2000.0307

  • 53. Akdis CA Simons FER. Histamine receptors are hot in immunopharmacology. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006; 533:69-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.12.044

  • 54. Schmelz M Schmidt R Bickel A et al. Specific Creceptors for itch in human skin.J Neurosci 1997; 17:8003-8.

  • 55. Spitaler MM Hammer A Malli R Graier WF. Functional analysis of histamine receptor subtypes involved in endotheliummediated relaxation of the human uterine artery. ClinExpPharmacolPhysiol 2002;29: 711-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1681.2002.03704.x

  • 56. Sugimoto Y Iba Y Nakamura Y et al. Pruritusassociated response mediated by cutaneous H3 receptors. ClinExp Allergy 2004;34:456-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.01876.x

  • 57. McLeod RL Mingo GG Herczku C et al. Combined histamine H1 and H3 receptor blockade produces nasal decongestion in an experimental model of nasal congestion. Am J Rhinol 1999;13:391-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2500/105065899781367483

  • 58. Fujikura T S himosawa T Y akuo I . R egulatory effect of histamine H1 receptor antagonist on the expression of messenger RNA encoding CC chemokines in the human nasal mucosa. J Allergy ClinImmunol 2001; 107:123-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mai.2001.111236

  • 59. Jutel M Watanabe T Akdis M et al.Immune regulation by histamine.Curr.Opin.Immunol.2002; 14 735-740. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0952-7915(02)00395-3

  • 60. Simons FE.Advances in H1-antihistamines.N.Engl. J. Med.2004; 351 2203-2217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra033121

  • 61. Simons FER Simons KJ. The pharmacology and use of H1-receptor antagonist drugs. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 1663-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199406093302307

  • 62. Simons FE Simons KJ. Clinical pharmacology of H1-antihistamines. Clin Allergy Immunol 2002;17:141-78.

  • 63. delCuvillo A Mullol J Bartra J Davila I et al. Comparative pharmacology of the H1 antihistamines. J Investig Allergol ClinImmunol 2006; 16(1):3-12.

  • 64. White MV. The role of histamine in allergic diseases. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1990;86:599-605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-6749(89)90317-5

  • 65. Rafferty P Holgate ST.Histamine and its antagonists in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1989;84:144-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-6749(89)90317-5

  • 66. Rafferty P Holgate ST. Terfenadine (Seldane) is a potent and selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist in asthmatic airways. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;135:181-4.

  • 67. Town Gl Holgate ST. Comparasion of the effect of loratadine on the airway and skin responses to histamine methacholine and allergen in subjects with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990;86:886-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(05)80151-4

  • 68. Brik A . Tashkin DP Gong H Jr et al. Effect of cetirizine a new histamine H1 antagonist on airway dynamics and responsiveness to inhaled histamine in mild asthma J Allergy ClinImmunol 1987;80:51-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(87)80190-2

  • 69. Grant JA Bernstein DI Buckley CE at al. Double blind comparison of terfenadine chlorpheniramine and placebo in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1990;81:574-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-6749(88)90197-2

  • 70. Brunet C Bedard P-M Hebert J. Effects of H1 antihistamine drug regimen on histamine release by nonlesional skin mast cells of patients with chronic urticaria. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1990;86:787-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(05)80184-8

  • 71. Cainelli T Seidenari S Valsecchi R Mosca M. Double blind comparison of astemizole and terfenadine in the treatment of chronic urticaria. Pharma-therapeutica 1986;4:679-86.

  • 72. Juhlin L Arendt C. Treatment of chronic urticaria with cetirizine dihydrochloride a non-sedating antihistamine. Br J Dermatol 1988;119:67-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1988.tb07103.x

  • 73. Belaich S Bruttmann G DeGreef H et al. Comparative effects of loratadine and terfenadine in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Ann Allergy 1990;64:191-4.

  • 74. Yang WH DrouinMACopeland D et al. Doubleblind multicentre study of ketotifen (Zaditen) in chronic idiopathic urticaria. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1991;87:224.abstract. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-6749(91)91620-9

  • 75. Advenier C Queille-Roussel C. Rational use of antihistamines in allergic dermatological conditions. Drugs 1989;38:634-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003495-198938040-00009

  • 76. Marshall C Lieberman P. Analysis of 3 pretreatment procedures to prevent anaphylactoid reactions to radiocontrast (RCM) in previous reactors (R). J Allergy ClinImmunol 1989;83:254. Abstract

  • 77. Lorenz W Ennis M Doenicke A Dick W. Perioperative uses of histamine antagonists. J ClinAnesth 1990;2:345-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0952-8180(90)90083-F

  • 78. Fadel R Herpin-Richard N Dufresne F Rihoux JP. Pharmacological modulation by cetirizine and loratadine of antigen and histamine-induced skin weals and flares and late accumulation of eosinophils. J Int Med Res 1990; 18 (5): 366-71.

  • 79. Charlesworth EN Massey WA Kagey-SobotkaA et al. Effect of H1 receptor blockade on the early and late response to cutaneous allergen challenge. J PharmacolExpTher 1992; 262 (3): 964-70.

  • 80. Redier H Chanez P De Vos C et al. Inhibitory effect of cetirizine on the bronchial eosinophil recruitment induced by allergen inhalation challenge in allergic patients with asthma. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1992; 90 (2): 215-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-6749(92)90074-C

  • 81. Snyman JR Sommers DK Gregorowski MD Boraine H. Effect of cetirizine ketotifen and chlorpheniramine on the dynamics of the cutaneous hypersensitivity reaction: a comparative study. Eur J ClinPharmacol 1992; 42 (4): 359-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00280118

  • 82. Fadel R Herpin-Richard N Rihoux JP et al. Inhibitory effect of cetirizine 2HCl on eosinophil migration in vivo. Clin Allergy 1987; 17 (4): 373-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.1987.tb02027.x

  • 83. Fadel R David B Herpin-Richard N et al. In vivo effects of cetirizine on cutaneous reactivity and eosinophil migration induced by plateletactivating factor (PAF-acether) in man. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1990; 86 (31): 314-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(05)80093-4

  • 84. van Steekelenburg J Clement PA Beel MH. Comparison of five new antihistamines (H1- receptor antagonists) in patients with allergic rhinitis using nasal provocation studies and skin tests. Allergy 2002; 57 (4): 346-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1398-9995.2002.1s3426.x

  • 85. Okada C Eda R Miyagawa H et al. Effect of cetirizine on human eosinophil superoxide generation eosinophil chemotaxis and eosinophil peroxidase in vitro. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1994; 103 (4): 384-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000236658

  • 86. Michel L De Vos C Dubertret L. Cetirizine effects on the cutaneous allergic reaction in humans. Ann Allergy 1990; 65 (6): 512-6

  • 87. Michel L De Vos C Rihoux JP et al. I nhibitory effect of oral cetirizine on in vivo antigen-induced histamine and PAF-acether release and eosinophil recruitment in human skin. J Allergy ClinImmunol 1988; 82 (1): 101-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-6749(88)90058-9

  • 88. Mincarini M Cagnoni F Canonica GW et al. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis of the effects of cetirizine on the expression of ICAM-1/CD54 on primary cultured nasal cells. Allergy 2000; 55 (3): 226-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1398-9995.2000.00213.x

  • 89. Albanesi C Pastore S Fanales-Belasio E Girolomoni G. Cetirizine and hydrocortisone differentially regulate ICAM-1 expression and chemokine release in cultured human keratinocytes. ClinExp Allergy 1998; 28 (1): 101-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2222.1998.00206.x

  • 90. Ambrosch A Borgmann S Rihoux JP et al. Effect of the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine on the stimulated expression of adhesion molecules and the activation of NFκB in human endothelial cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001; 124 (1-3): 362-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000053758

  • 91. Ciprandi G Buscaglia S Pesce G et al. Cetirizine reduces inflammatory cell recruitment and ICAM-1 (or CD54) expression on conjunctival epithelium in both early- and late-phase reactions after allergen-specific challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1995; 95 (2): 612-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0091-6749(95)70324-1

  • 92. Campbell A Chanal I Czarlewski W et al. Reduction of soluble ICAM-1 levels in nasal secretion by H1-blockers in seasonal allergic rhinitis. Allergy 1997; 52 (10): 1022-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1398-9995.1997.tb02425.x

  • 93. Fasce L Ciprandi G Pronzato C et al. Cetirizine reduces ICAM-I on epithelial cells during nasal minimal persistent inflammation in asymptomatic children with mite-allergic asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996; 109 (3): 272-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000237249

  • 94. Boone M Lespagnard L Renard N et al. Adhesion molecule profiles in atopic dermatitis vs. allergic contact dermatitis: pharmacological modulation by cetirizine. J EurAcadDermatolVenereol 2000; 14 (4): 263-6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1468-3083.2000.00017.x

  • 95. 9Bennion SD Middleton MH David-Bajar KM et al. In three types of interface dermatitis different patterns of expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) indicate different triggers of disease. J Invest Dermatol 1995: 105 (1 Suppl.): 71-9.

  • 96. Shimizu T Nishihira J Watanabe H et al. Cetirizine an H1-receptor antagonist supresses the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor: its potential anti-inflammatory action. ClinExp Allergy. 2004;34 (1): 103-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2222.2004.01836.x

  • 97. Namazi MR. Cetirizine and allopurinol as novel weapons against autoimmune disorders. J IntImmunopharmacol 2004: 4 (3): 349- 53.

  • 98. Pestelli E Caproni M Giomi B et al. Cetirizine reduces the number of tryptase-positive mast cells in psoriatic patients: a double-blind controlled study. Int J Tissue React 2001: 23(3): 97-103.

  • 99. Hemmati AA Mikaili P Khodayar MJ et al. The protective effect of Cetirizine against Bleomycine induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Pak J Med Sci 2008: 24 (6): 813-20.

Journal information
Impact Factor

Cite Score 2018: 0.33

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.134
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.287

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 529 391 22
PDF Downloads 236 194 2