Oxidative Stress, Skin Aging and Antioxidant Therapy / Oksidacioni Stres, Starenje Kože I Antioksidaciona Terapija

Open access


Skin aging is a dynamic process that occurs due to chronological and photo-aging caused by the influence of external factors, especially ultraviolet-UV radiation. Cumulative oxidative stress, formation of free radicals and their adverse effects on biological systems in the skin cells is a common mechanism of both skin aging processes. The formed reactive oxygen species-ROS can lead to the oxidation of cell`s building molecules. Lipid peroxidation, membrane protein damage and DNA mutation may lead to many structural, functional and aesthetic changes in the skin and can also initiate development of many diseases.

One of the skin defense mechanisms is antioxidant defense where enzymes and other antioxidant substances react directly with ROS, preventing them from reaching their biological target. Antioxidant substances have the ability to bind free radicals, caused by oxidative stress, and may have significance in prevention and/or therapy of various skin diseases, as well as in slowing the skin aging process. Topical application of antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, coenzyme Q10 and polyphenolic compounds may provide the strengthening of the skin endogenous protection system and protection from harmful effects of ROS and oxidative damage to the skin.

This article outlines the impact of oxidative stress on the chronological and photo- aging, its mechanism of action, the changes that occur on/in the skin during the aging process. Substances with antioxidant characteristics, which can be used in the prevention of chronological and/or treatment of photo-aging of the skin are shown.

1. Rabe JH, Mamelak AJ, McElgunn PJet al. Photoaging: mechanisms and repair. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55:1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2005.05.010

2. Peres PS, Terra VA, Guarnier FA et al. Photoaging and chronological aging profile: Understanding oxidation of the skin. J Photochem Photobiol B 2011;103:93-97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2011.01.019

3. Kligman LH. Photoaging. Manifestations, prevention, and treatment. Clin Geriatr Med 1989;5:235-251.

4. Kligman LH. The hairless mouse and photoaging. Photochem Photobiol 1991;54:1109-1118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1991.tb02134.x

5. Rattan SI. Theories of biological aging: genes, proteins, and free radicals. Free Radic Res 2006; 40:1230-1238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715760600911303

6. Kohen R. Skin antioxidants: their role in aging and in oxidative stress-new approaches for their evaluation. Biomed Pharmacother 1999;53:181-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0753-3322(99)80087-0

7. Stadtman ER. Protein oxidation and aging. Free Radic Res 2006;40:1250-1258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715760600918142

8. Shindo Y, Witt E, Packer L. Antioxidant defense mechanisms in murine epidermis and dermis and their responses to ultraviolet light. J Invest Dermatol 1993; 100:260-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12469048

9. Miyachi Y. Photoaging from an oxidative standpoint. J Dermatol Sci 1995;9:79-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0923-1811(94)00363-J

10. Jurkiewicz BA, Buettner GR. Ultraviolet light-induced free radical formation in skin: an electron paramagnetic resonance study. Photochem Photobiol 1994;59:1-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1994.tb04993.x

11. Moysan A, Marquis I, Gaboriau F et al. Ultraviolet A-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense systems in cultured human skin fibroblasts. J Invest Dermatol 1993;100:692-698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12472352

12. Yue Y, Zhou H, Liu G et al. The advantages of a novel CoQ10 delivery system in skin photo-protection. Int J Pharm 2010;392:57-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.03.032

13. Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Wlaschek M, Brenneisen P et al. UV-induced reactive oxygen species in photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Biol Chem 1997;378: 1247 -1257.

14. El-Domyati M, Attia S, Saleh F et al. Intrinsic aging vs. photoaging: a comparative histopathological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin. Exp Dermatol 2002;11:398-405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0625.2002.110502.x

15. Chidambaram U, Pachamuthu V, Natarajan S et al. In vitro evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of Codariocalyx motorius root extract. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2013;6:188-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1995-7645(13)60021-8

16. Gasca CA, Cabezas FA, Torras L et al. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract and purified fractions of cadillo (Pavonia sepioides). Free radicals and Antioxidants 2013; 3: s55-s61.

17. Kohen R, Gati I. Skin low molecular weight antioxidants and their role in aging and in oxidative stress. Toxicology 2000;148:149-157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0300-483X(00)00206-7

18. Jenkins G. Molecular mechanisms of skin ageing. Mech Ageing Dev 2002; 123:801-810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0047-6374(01)00425-0

19. Merker K, Sitte N, Grune T. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated protein oxidation in young and old human MRC-5 fibroblasts. Arch Biochem Biophys 2000;375:50-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1999.1657

20. Shindo Y, Witt E, Han D et al. Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of human skin. J Invest Dermatol 1994;102:122-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12371744

21. Vuleta G, Savić S. The rationale for use of vitamins and minerals in cosmetic products. Arh pharm 2009; 59: 212-225 (in Serbian).

22. Baumann L. Skin aging and its treatment. J Pathol 2007; 2011:241-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.2098

23. Manela-Azulay M, Bagatin E. Cosmeceuticals vitamins. Clin Dermatol 2009;27:469-474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2009.05.010

24. Vuleta G, Vasiljević D. Vitamins in cosmetic products. Arh pharm 2001; 51:439-450 (in Serbian).

25. Zussman J, Ahdout J, Kim J. Vitamins and photoaging: do scientific data support their use? J Am Acad Dermatol 2010;63:507-525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2009.07.037

26. Chow CK. Vitamin E and oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med 1991;11:215-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0891-5849(91)90174-2

27. Nachbar F, Korting HC. The role of vitamin E in normal and damaged skin. J Mol Med (Berl) 1995;73:7-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00203614

28. Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S et al. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Br J Dermatol 1992;127:247-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1992.tb00122.x

29. Humbert PG, Haftek M, Creidi P et al. Topical ascorbic acid on photoaged skin. Clinical, topographical and ultrastructural evaluation: double-blind study vs. placebo. Exp Dermatol 2003;12:237-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0625.2003.00008.x

30. Rozman B, Gasperlin M. Stability of vitamins C and E in topical microemulsions for combined antioxidant therapy. Drug Deliv 2007;14:235-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717540601067786

31. Eberlein-König B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:45-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-9622(98)70537-7

32. Lin JY, Selim MA, Shea CR et al. UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:866-874. http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mjd.2003.425

33. Maia Campos PM, Gianeti MD, Kanashiro A et al. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective effects of an association of bioflavonoids with liposoluble vitamins. Photochem Photobiol 2006;82:683-688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1562/2005-10-14-RA-715

34. Murray JC, Burch JA, Streilein RD et al. A topical antioxidant solution containing vitamins C and E stabilized by ferulic acid provides protection for human skin against damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008;59:418-425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2008.05.004

35. Thiele JJ, Hsieh SN, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S. Vitamin E: critical review of its current use in cosmetic and clinical dermatology. Dermatol Surg 2005;31:805-813; http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2005.31724

36. Burke K: Cosmeceuticals, Nutritional antioxidants, Edited by Zoe Diana Draclos 2005; 18:125-131.

37. Almeida IF, Valentão P, Andrade PB et al. In vivo skin irritation potential of a Castanea sativa (Chestnut) leaf extract, a putative natural antioxidant for topical application. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;103:461-467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00301.x

38. Afaq F, Mukhtar H. Botanical antioxidants in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging. Exp Dermatol 2006;15:678-84. Review. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2006.00466.x

39. Do QD, Artik EA, Phuong Lan TN et al. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoids content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatic. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 2014;22:296-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2013.11.001

40. Tuominen A. Defensive strategies in Geranium sylvaticum, Part 2: Roles of water-soluble tannins, flavonoids and phenolic acids against natural enemies. Phytochemistry 2013; 95: 408-420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2013.07.029

41. Amzad Hossain M, Salehuddin SM, Kabir MJ et al. Sinensetin, rutin, 30-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 40-tetramethoxyflavone and rosmarinic acid contents and antioxidative effect of the skin of apple fruit. Food Chem 2009; 113:185-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.085

42. Obiang-Obounou BW, Ryu GH. The effect of feed moisture and temperature on tannin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extruded chestnuts. Food Chem 2013;141:4166-4170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.129

43. Viswanad V, Aleykutty NA, Zacharia SM et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Samadera indica using In vitro models. Phcog J 2011;3(23):85-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.5530/pj.2011.23.13

Acta Facultatis Medicae Naissensis

The Journal of Faculty of Medicine in Nis

Journal Information

Cite Score 2017: 0.27

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.140
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.240


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 172 172 13
PDF Downloads 43 43 10