The main purpose of the present study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 3,072 adolescents from two European countries of Lithuania and Serbia. The dependent variable was SES, while independent variables were gender, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, body-mass index, self-rated health, psychological distress, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analysed by using logistic regression analysis. In univariate model, middle/high SES was associated with higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet (ptrend = 0.003), good self-rated health (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.12 to 2.05) and meeting recommendations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.45 to 3.00), yet inversely associated with psychological distress (OR 0.81; 95 % CI 0.66 to 0.99) and sedentary behaviour (OR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68 to 0.94). No associations were found between SES and bodymass index and gender. In multivariate model, the same associations occurred between middle/high SES and lifestyle factors. In conclusion, special strategies and policies, based on more affordable nutrition and participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, should be implemented within the system.
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