The Influence of Coaches’ Communication on The Level of Players’ Pre-Competitive Anxiety and Selfesteem

Open access


The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of coaches` communication discourse determined by educational program Mastery Approach to Coaching (MAC) on changes of players` level of pre-competitive anxiety and self-esteem. The research was applied on 10 coaches of collective sports and 161 players. For diagnosing, the level of cognitive, somatic anxiety and selfesteem was used standardized questionnaire CSAI-2R. Players of experimental group decreased level of intensity of cognitive (p = 0.004) and somatic anxiety as well as frequency and increased level of selfesteem intensity (p = 0.021) and frequency during intervention period. After three months’ experiment period players of experimental group experienced lower intensity (p = 0.000) and frequency of cognitive anxiety as well as lower intensity (p = 0.012) and frequency (p = 0.037) of somatic anxiety than players in control group. Players of experimental group perceived direction of self-esteem intrusions (p = 0.041) as well as intrusions of cognitive and somatic anxiety more positively than players of control group after intervention period.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. BARNETT N. P. F. L. SMOLL & R. E. SMITH 1992. Effects of enhancing coachathlete relationships on youth sport attrition. In: The Sport Psychologist. Vol. 6 p. 111-127.

  • 2. CECCHINI J. A. C. GONZALEZ A. M. CARMONA J. ARRUZA A. ESCARTI & G. BALAGUE 2001. The influence of the physical education teacher on intrinsic motivation self-confidence anxiety and pre- and post-competition mood states. In: European Journal of Sport Science. Vol. 1 p. 1-11. ISSN 1746-1391.

  • 3. COATSWORTH J. D. & D. E. CONROY 2006. Enhancing the self-esteem of youth swimmers through coach training: gender and age effects. In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol. 7 p. 173-192. ISSN 1469-0292.

  • 4. CUMMING S. P. F. L. SMOLL R. E. SMITH & J. R. GROSSBARD 2007. Is Winning Everything? The Relative Contributions of Motivational Climate and Won-Lost Percentage in Youth Sports. In: Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 19(3) p. 322-336. ISSN 1041-3200.

  • 5. DUDA J. L. 2004. The Motivational Climate Perceived Ability and Athletes’ Psychological and Physical Well-Being. In: The Sport Psychologist. Vol. 18 p. 237-251. ISSN 0888-4781.

  • 6. DUDA J. L. 2005. Motivation in Sport: The Relevance of Competence and Achievement Goals. In: Elliot A. J. and Dweck C. S. (eds.) Handbook of competence and motivation. United States of America: The Guilford Press. ISBN 1-59385-123-5.

  • 7. GONZALEZ C. J. A. CECCHINI A. M. CARMONA & O. CONTRERAS 2004. Relationships among motivational climate achievement goals intrinsic motivation selfconfidence anxiety and mood in young sport players. In: Psicothema. 16(1) p. 104-109. ISSN 0214-9915.

  • 8. HANTON S. O. THOMAS & I. MAYNARD 2004. Competitive anxiety responses in the week leading up to competition: the role of intensity direction and frequency dimensions. In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol. 5 p. 169-181. ISSN 1469-0292.

  • 9. MARTINENT G. C. FERRAND E. GUILLET & S. GAUTHEUR 2010. Validation of the French version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. Revised (CSAI-2R) including frequency and direction scales. In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol. 11 p. 51-57. ISSN 1469-0292.

  • 10. MELLALIEU S. D. S. HANTON & O. THOMAS 2009. The effects of a motivational general-arousal imagery intervention upon preperformance symptoms in male rugby union players. In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol. 10 pp. 175-185.

  • 11. MACMORRIS T. & T. HALE 2006. Coaching Science: Theory into Practice. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 13 978 0-470-01097-5.

  • 12. NEWTON M. L. & J. L. DUDA 1999. The interaction of motivational climate dispositional goal orientation and perceived ability in predicting indices of motivation. International. In: Journal of Sport Psychology. Vol. 30 p. 63-82. ISSN 0047-0767.

  • 13. NICHOLLS J. G. 1984. Achievement motivation: conceptions of ability subjective experience task choice and performance. In: Psychological Review. Vol. 91 p. 328-346. ISSN 0033-295X Papaioannou-Kouli (1999)

  • 14. PERIČ T. 2004. Sportovní příprava dětí. Praha: Grada Publishing. ISBN 80-247-0683-0.

  • 15. SMITH E. R. & F. L. SMOLL 2011. Cognitive-Behavioral Coach Training: A Translational Approach to Theory Research and Intervention. In: Luiselli J.K. and Reed D.D. - Behavioral sport psychology: Evidence-Based Approaches to Performance Enhancement. London: Springer p. 227-249. ISBN 978-1-4614-0069-1.

  • 16. SMITH E. R. & F. L. SMOLL 2012. Sport Psychology for Youth Coaches: Developing Champions in Sport and Life. Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield p. 227-248. ISBN 978-1-4422-1715-7.

  • 17. SMITH E. R. F. L. SMOLL & S.P. CUMMING 2007. Effects of a motivational climate intervention for coaches on young athletes` sport performance anxiety. In: Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Vol. 29 pp. 39-59. ISSN 0895-2779.

  • 18. SMITH R. E. F. L. SMOLL & N. P. BARNETT 1995. Reduction of children’s sport performance anxiety through social support and stress-reduction training for coaches. In: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. Vol. 16 pp. 125-142. ISSN 0193-3973.

  • 19. SMOLL F. L. R. E. SMITH N. P. BARNETT & J. J. EVERETT 1993. Enhancement of children’s self-esteem through social support training for youth sport coaches. In: Journal of Applied Psychology. Vol. 78 pp. 602-610. ISSN 0021-9010.

  • 20. SMITH R. E. F. L. SMOLL & N. P. BARNETT 1995. Reduction of children’s sport performance anxiety through social support and stress-reduction training for coaches. In: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. Vol. 16 pp. 125-142. ISSN 0193-3973.

  • 21. UPHILL M. A. P. J. MCCARTHY & M. V. JONES 2009. Getting a grip on emotion in sport: conceptual foundations and practical application. In: Mellalieu S.D. and HANTON S. - Advances in Applied Sport Psychology: A review. London: Taylor and Francis group pp. 162-194. ISBN 0-203-88707-7.

  • 22. VAZOU S. N. NTOUMANIS & J. L. DUDA 2006. Predicting young athletes’ motivational indices as a function of their perceptions of the coach- and peer-created climate. In: Psychology of Sport and Exercise. Vol. 7 pp. 215-233. ISSN 1469-0292.

  • 23. VOSLOO J. 2007. The Interactions between Perceived Motivational Climate and Achievement Goal Orientations and their Relationship to Competitive State Anxiety and Self-Confidence among High-school Swimmers. West Virginia University. [online]. [cit. 2014-03-15]. Available on:

  • 24. WHITE S. A. M. KAVUSSANU K. M. TANK & J. M. WINGATE 2004. Perceived parental beliefs about the causes of success in sport: relationship to athletes’ achievement goals and personal beliefs. In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. Vol. 14 pp. 57-66. ISSN 0905-7188.

  • 25. WALLING M. D. J. L. DUDA & L. CHI 1993. The Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire: Construct and Predictive Validity. In: Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Vol. 15 pp. 172-183. ISSN 0895-2779.

  • 26. YOO J. 2003. Motivational climate and perceived competence in anxiety and tennis performance. In: Perceptual and Motor Skills. Vol. 96 pp. 403-413. ISSN 0031-5125.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 489 291 15
PDF Downloads 255 159 14