The Relative Age Effect On The Selection In The Slovakia National Football Teams

Open access

Summary

The focus of this research was to determine the relative age effect (RAE) on selection in the Slovakia national football teams. A factor that may have a significant impact on the quality of players chosen for the national teams or may result in a poor selection of players for the elite teams. Anthropometric and cognitive acceleration of players born in the first months of the calendar year concerning the overall context of the competition for placement in the national teams may be considered as a significant advantage. The aim of this research was to examine, determine and verify the presence of relative age effect in the selection of football players for the Slovakia national teams starting with the under 16 age category (U-16) through to the A - senior national football team. We presumed that the elite teams under this review and study consisted predominantly of players born in the first quarter of the calendar year, while also presuming that relative age effect receded with the increasing age category. Our survey sample U16 consisted of 79 players, U17 consisted of 47 players, U18 consisted of 58 players, U19 consisted of 71 players, U21 consisted of 52 players and A - senior national team consisted of 302 Slovakia national football players. The information obtained from the Slovak Football Association has been processed by the application of statistical methods and statistical significance test (T-test). Our research confirmed the presence of relative age effect in the U-16, U-17 and U-18 teams under our investigation (p≤0.01). In the U19 and U21 age categories, statistical significance has not been confirmed. As for the senior national team, statistically significant difference has been found in relation to players born in the last quarter of the year as opposed to players born in the first three months of the year (p≤0.01). Our results have shown that with the increasing age, the relative age effect fades and vanishes in full in the category of senior elite players. In the U-19 and U-21 age categories, statistical significance has not been confirmed. Based on this research results it may be recommended to use the advantage of relative age effect for the selection of players of the particular age category in the particular competition (such as e.g. the European Championship qualification, the European Championship final tournament qualification, or the World Cup qualification in the U-16, U-17, U-18 age categories).

1. AGRICOLA et al., 2012. Age effect v juniorskom tenise. [Age effect in junior tennis] Studia sportiva, Brno: FSpS MU Brno, 6(2), p. 38-45. ISSN 1802-7679.

2. AUGSTE, C. and M. LAMES, 2011. The relative age effect and success in German elite U-17 soccer teams. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(9), page 983-987.

3. BARNSLEY, R. H., A.H. THOMPSON and P.E. BARNSLEY, 1985. Hockey success and birthdate: The relative age effect. Journal of the Canadian Association of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 51, p. 23-28.

4. BARNSLEY, R. H., A.H. THOMPSON and P. LEGAULT, 1992. Family Planning: Football Style. The Relative Age Effect in Football. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 27(1), p. 77-86.

5. BAXTER-JONES et al., 1995. Growth and development of male gymnasts, swimmers, soccer and tennis players: A longitudinal study. Annals of Human Biology, 22(5), p. 381-394.

6. CAMPO et al., 2010. The relative age effect in youth soccer players from Spain. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9(2), p. 190-198.

7. COSTA et al., 2012. Relative age effect in Brazilian soccer players: a historical analysis. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 12(3), p. 563-570.

8. DANIEL, T. E. and C.T.L. JANSSEN, 1987. More on the Relative Age Effect. Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 53(3), page 21-24.

9. DELORME, N., J. BOICHÉ and M. RASPAUD, 2009. The relative age effect in elite sport: the French case. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 80(2), p. 336-344.

10. EDWARDS, S., 1994. Born too late to win? Nature, 370(6486), p. 186.

11. GIACOMINI, C. P., 1999. Association of Birthdate with Success of Nationally Ranked Junior Tennis Players. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 89(2), p. 381-386.

12. GREGORA, P. and M. MIKULIČ, 2015. Relative age effect on the selection to youth national teams for elite tournament in football. SVOUC 2015. Bratislava: FTVŠ UK.

13. GRONDIN, S. and S. KOREN, 2000. The Relative Age Effect in Professional Baseball: A Look at the History of Major League Baseball and at Current Status in Japan AVANTEONTARIO, 6(2), p. 64-74.

14. GONZÁLES ARAMENDI, J. M., 2007. El efecto relativo de la edad en el fútbol [The relative age effect in football]. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte, 24, p. 9-17.

15. GRONDIN, S., P. DESHAIES and L.P. NAULT, 1984. Trimestres de naissance et participation au hockey et au volleyball. Revue Quebecoise de l'Activite Physique, 2, p. 97-103.

16. HELSEN, F., J. WINCKEL and M. WILLIAMS, 2005. The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe. Journal of Sports Science, 23(6). ISSN 1466-447X.

17. HELSEN, F., J. WINCKEL and J.Z. STARKES, 2000. Effects of a Change in Selection Year on Success in Male Soccer Players. American Journal of Human Biology. 12(6), p. 729-735.

18. HURLEY, W., D. LIOR and S. TRACZE, 2001. A Proposal to Reduce the Age Discrimination in Canadian Minor Hockey. Canadian Public Policy, 27(1), p. 65-75.

19. KAMPMILLER, T., et al., 2010. Základy metodológie výskumu v telesnej výchove a športe. [The methodology of research in physical education and sports] Bratislava: ICM Agency. ISBN 978-80-89-257-27-0.

20. MERTON, R., M., 1968. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

21. MUJIKA et al., 2009. The Relative Age in a Professional Club Setting. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(11), p. 1153-1158.

22. MUSCH, J. and R. HAY, 1999. The relative age effect in soccer: cross-cultural evidence for a systematic discrimination against children born late in the competition year. Sociology of Sport Journal, 16(1), p. 54-64.

23. PERÁČEK, P., 2004. Teória a didaktika športových hier. [Theory and didactics of sports games] Bratislava: PEEM. 2. vydanie. ISBN 80-89197-09-4.

24. PERÁČEK, P., 2014. Talent vo futbale I. (identifikácia, selekcia) [Talent in football I. (identification, selection)] Bratislava: FTVŠ UK v Bratislave. ISBN 978-80-971646-2-1.

25. PEREZ JIMENEZ, I. and M.T.G. PAIN, 2008. Relative age effect in Spanish association football: its extent and implications for wasted potential. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(10), p. 995–1003.

26. SAAVERDA et al., 2014. Relative age effect in lower categories of international basketball. In: International Review for the Sociology of Sport. ISSN 1012-6902.

27. THOMPSON, A. H., R.H. BARNSLEY and G. STEBELSKY, 1991. “Born to Play Ball” The Relative Age Effect and Major League Baseball. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8, p. 146-151.

28. VAEYENS, R., R.M. PHILIPPAERTS and R.M. MALINA, 2005. The relative age effect in soccer: a match-related perspective. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(7), p. 747-756.

29. VINCENT, J., and F.D. GLAMSER, 2006. Gender differences in the relative age effect among US Olympic development program for youth soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(4).

30. WATTIE et al., 2007. Injuries in Canadian youth ice hockey: the influence of relative age. Paediatrics, 120(1), p. 142-148.

Journal Information

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 104 104 19
PDF Downloads 34 34 6