Investigations of the Temperature Influence on Formation of Compounds from the BTEX Group During the Thermal Decomposition of Furan Resin / Badania wpływu temperatury na powstawanie związków z grupy BTEX podczas termicznego rozkładu żywicy furanowej

Open access


Organic binders applied in foundry plants based on synthetic resins, from the one side influence obtaining the required technological properties by the moulding sand and - in consequence - obtaining good quality castings, and on the other side are the source of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Together with synthetic resins their hardeners, which although added in very small amounts emit during their thermal decomposition substances negatively influencing the natural environment, are also used. Both, resins and hardeners only at the influence of high temperatures accompanying moulds pouring with liquid metal generate harmful volatile organic compounds including compounds from the BTEX group. Investigations of the temperature influence on the kind and amount of organic compounds formed during the thermal decomposition of selected binders and hardeners and their mixtures allow to determine temperature ranges the most favourable for emitting harmful substances as well as to compare their emission from the selected materials.

The aim of this study was the determination the temperature influence on formation substances from the BTEX group, during thermal decomposition of the selected binder, its hardener and their mixture. The BTEX group emission constitutes one of the basic criteria in assessing the harmfulness of materials applied for moulding and core sands and it can undergo changes in dependence of the applied system resin-hardener. Investigations were carried out on the specially developed system for the thermal decomposition of organic substances in the temperature range: 500ºC - 1300ºC, at the laboratory scale. The investigations subject was the furan resin, its hardener and hardened furan resin. The assessment of the emission degree of the BTEX group in dependence of the system subjected to the temperature influence was performed, within the studies. The temperature range, in which maximal amounts of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes were emitted from tested materials - was defined. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the BTEX group were carried out with using the gas chromatography technique coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

[1] Faber, J., Perszewska, K., Żmudzińska, M. & Latała-Holtzer, M. (2010). Identification of smells from casting processes using “e-nose”. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 10, 39-42.

[2] Taulbee, D. N., LaFay, V., Dempsey, T., Neltner, S. Hill and GriffithCo., A method to measure benzene production duringpyrolysis; results from testing of carbonaceous additives infoundry sands. Retrieved March 22, 2013 from

[3] Makhniashvili, Szewczyńska, M. & Ekiert, E. (2004). Iron casting - chemical hazards. Bezpieczeństwo Pracy, 12, 14-16

[4] Holtzer, M. (2011). World development tendencies in the field of moulding and core sands with regard to their environmental impact. Przegląd Odlewnictwa. 61(3-4), 112-121.

[5] Bobrowski, A. & Holtzer, M. (2009). Assessment of environmental influence of bentonite and lustrous carbon carrier - in an aspect of gases emission. Archives of FoundryEngineering. 9, 21-24.

[6] Lewandowski, J., Solarski, W. & Zawada, J. (1997). Air pollution by gases emitted from foundry moulds during their filling. Acta Mettalurgica Slovaca. 3, 598-602.

[7] Wang, Y., Huang, H., Cannon, F.S., Voigt, R.C. et all (2007). Evaluation of volatile hydrocarbon emission characteristic of carbonaceous additives in green sand foundries. Environmental Science and technology. 41(8), 2957-2963. DOI: 10.1021/es0628295.

[8] Lentini, J. J. & Armstrong, A. T. (1997). Comparison of the eluting efficiency of carbon disulfide with diethyl ether: the case for laboratory safety. ASTM International-TechnicalNote. 307-311, DOI: 10.1520/JFS14117J.

[9] Kubecki, M., Bobrowski, A., Dańko, R., Grabowska, B., Holtzer, M. (2012). Analysis of BTEX compounds emitted during thermal degradation of alkyd resin used as a binder Archives of Foundry Engineering. 12(3), 119-124. DOI: 10.2478/v10266-012-0084-z.

[10] Ji, S., Wan, L. & Fan, Z. (2001). The toxic compounds and leaching characteristics of spent foundry sands. Water, Airand Soil Pollution. 132(3-4), 347-364, DOI: 10.1023/A: 1013-207000046.

[11] Kubecki, M., Spiewok, W. (2008). Development and implementation of methods for the identification and determination of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) in metallurgical waste, soil and water. Sprawozdanie Nr S0-0654/BC.

[12] Kubecki, M., Holtzer, M., Grabowska, B.& Bobrowski, A. (2011). Development of method for identification of compounds emitted during thermal degradation of binders used in foundry. Archives of Foundry Engineering. 11, 125-130.

Archives of Foundry Engineering

The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.42

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.192
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.316

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 159 156 10
PDF Downloads 52 51 5