Analysis of chemical stability of tap water in terms of required level of technological safety

Open access

Abstract

The main goal of this work is to show the new approach to determining safety technological levels (SLs) in terms of water quality and its chemical stability, as well as issues of water corrosion properties in water distribution systems (WDSs), due to the fact that water supply pipes are prone to corrosion. In the paper the methodology of determining the risk associated with threat to technical infrastructure was considered. The concept was studied on the basis of real operational data from the water treatment plant. The probability of exceeding the individual parameters for WTPI is slightly larger than for WTPII, which means that this water treatment process may cause lack of chemical stability in the water supply network. Operators should anticipate in the process of designing water distribution system, using proper materials, as to ensure an adequate level of safety from the water source to the water recipient. It should be noted that it is necessary to adjust the material of internal installation of water supply networks to the parameters of the water. At present, there are no correlations between the designing step and water parameters. It was concluded that to protect the water supply infrastructure, which belongs to critical infrastructure, water company should put more emphasis on distribution of stable water that has not potentially corrosion properties. Some suggestions were made for the protection of WDS and to ensure safety of system functioning and long-term usability of water pipes.

Carneiro, RN., Damiao, S. & Benoliel, M.J. (2015). Water safety plans at EPAL’s water supply system-tool to prioritize investments and mitigation actions, Water Science Technology, 15, pp. 1106-1114.

Carrier Air Conditioning Company (1965). Handbook of Air Conditioning System Design, McGraw-Hill Books, New York 1965.

Darvishi, G., Kootenaei, F.G., Ramezani, M., Lotfi , E. & Asgharnia, H. (2016). Comparative Investigation of River Water Quality by OWQI, NSFWQI and Wilcox Indexes (Case study: the Talar River - IRAN), Archives of Environmental Protection, 42, pp. 41-48. DOI: 10.1515/aep-2016-0005

Dubiel, M., Hsu, C.H., Chien, C.C., Mansfeld, F. & Newman, D.K. (2002). Microbial iron respiration can protect steel from corrosion, Applied Environment Microbiology, 68, pp. 1440-1445.

EN 12502:2006 Guidance on the assessment of corrosion likelihood in water distribution and storage systems.

Ferrandez-Gamot, L., Busson, P., Blesa, J., Tornil-Sin, S., Puig, V., Eric, D. & Soldevila, A. (2015). Leak localization in water distribution networks using pressure residuals and classifiers original, Water Resources, 48, pp. 220-225.

Garboś, S. & Święcicka, D. (2015). Human health risk assessment of uranium in drinking water sampled from drilled wells located in rural areas of the Lower Silesian region (Poland), Archives of Environmental Protection, 41, pp. 21-27. DOI: 10.1515/aep-2015-0014

Gerke, T.L., Maynard, J.B., Schock, M.R. & Lytle, D.L. (2008). Physiochemical characterization of five iron tubercles from a single drinking water distribution system: possible new insights on their formation and growth, Corrosion Science, 50, pp. 2030-2039.

Gorka, A., Papciak, D., Zamorska, J. & Antos, D. (2008). The influence of biofilm on the effectiveness of ion exchange process, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 47, pp. 7456-7464.

Haibo, W., Chun, H. & Xiaoxiao, L. (2015). Characterization of biofi lm bacterial communities and cast iron corrosion in bench- -scale reactors with chloraminated drinking water, Engineering Failure Analysis, 57, pp. 423-433.

Husband, P.S. & Boxall, J.B. (2011). Asset deterioration and discolouration in water distribution systems, Water Resources, 45, pp. 113-124.

Kaźmierczak, B. & Wdowikowski, M. (2016). Maximum rainfall model based on archival pluviographic records - case study for Legnica (Poland), Periodica Polytechnica Civil Engineering, 60(2), pp. 305-312. DOI: 10.3311/PPci.8341

Królikowska, J. (2011). Application of PHA method for assessing risk of failure on the example of sewage system in the city of Krakow, Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska, 13, pp. 693-710.

Kutylowska, M. & Orlowska-Szostak, M. (2016). Comparative analysis of water-pipe network deterioration-case study, Water Practice and Technology, 11(1), pp. 148-156.

Kiedryńska, L., Papciak, D. & Granops, M. (2006). Sanitary Chemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW (WULS-SGGW), Warsaw 2006. (in Polish)

Lia, X., Wanga, H., Hua, C., Yanga, M., Hub, H. & Niuc, J. (2014). Characteristics of biofilms and iron corrosion scales with ground and surface waters in drinking water distribution systems, Corrosion Science, 90, pp. 331-339.

McNeill, L.S. & Edwards, M. (2001). Iron pipe corrosion in distribution systems, Journal of American Water Works Association, 93, pp. 88-100.

Langelier, W.F. (1936). The analytical control of anti-corrosion water treatment, Journal of the American Water Works Association, 28, pp. 1500-1521.

Nowacka, A., Wlodarczyk-Makula, M., Tchorzewska-Cieslak, B. & Rak, J. (2016). The ability to remove the priority PAHs from water during coagulation process including risk assessment, Desalination Water Treatment, 57, pp. 1297-1309.

Nowak, A.S. & Collins, K.R. (2013). Reliability of Structures, Taylor & Francis Group, New York 2013.

Ondrejka-Harbulakova, V., Purcz, P., Estokova, A., Luptakova, A. & Repka, M. (2015). Using a statistical method for the concrete deterioration assessment in sulphate environment, Chemical Engineering Transaction, 43, pp. 2221-2226.

Pietrzyk, A. & Papciak, D. (2016). Organic Matter in Natural Water - Forms of Occurring and Methods of Purifying, Czasopismo Inżynierii Lądowej, Środowiska i Architektury - Journal of Civil Engineering, Environment and Architecture, JCEEA, 63 (2/I), pp. 241-252. DOI: 10.7862/rb.2016.126

Radzka, E., Rymuza, K. & Jankowska, J. (2015). The assessment of drinking water quality using zero unitarization method, Archives of Environmental Protection, 41, pp. 91-95. DOI: 10.1515/aep-2015-0043

Ryznar, J. (1944). A new index for determining the amount of calcium carbonate scale formed by a water, Journal of the American Water Works Association, 36, pp. 472-486.

Strohecker, R. (1936). A New Way to Determine the Aggressiveness of Water, Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie, 107, pp. 321-328. (in Deutsch)

Studziński, A. & Pietrucha-Urbanik, K. (2015). Preventive maintenance and reliability of water supply system elements, Czasopismo Inżynierii Lądowej, Środowiska i Architektury - Journal of Civil Engineering, Environment and Architecture, JCEEA, 62(3), pp. 429-436. DOI: 10.7862/rb.2015.126

Suna, H. & Wanga, X. (2016). NH4 + adsorption and adsorption kinetics by sediments in a drinking water reservoir, Archives of Environmental Protection, 42, pp. 90-95. DOI: 10.1515/aep-2016-0039

Tchórzewska-Cieslak, B. & Szpak, D. (2015). Proposed method of analysis and assessment of water supply safety, Ochrona Środowiska, 37(3), pp. 43-47. (in Polish)

Tchorzewska-Cieslak, B. & Rak, J. (2009). Method of identification of operational states of water supply system, Conf. Proc. of 3rd Congress Environmental Engineering, Lublin, Poland, pp. 521-526.

Tchorzewska-Cieslak, B., Boryczko, K. & Eid, M. (2012). Failure scenarios in water supply system by means of fault tree analysis, Advances in Safety, Reliability and Risk Management - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2011, pp. 2492-2499.

Volk, C., Dundore, E., Schiermann, J. & Lechevallier, M. (2000). Practical evaluation of iron corrosion control in a drinking water distribution system, Water Resources, 34, pp. 1967-1974.

Zhang, H., Tian, Y., Wan, J. & Zhao, P. (2015). Study of biofilm influenced corrosion on cast iron pipes in reclaimed water, Applied Surface Science, 357, pp. 236-247.

Zhang, Y., Griffi n, A. & Edwards, M. (2010). Effect of nitrification on corrosion of galvanized iron, copper, and concrete, Journal of American Water Works Association, 102, pp. 83-93.

Archives of Environmental Protection

The Journal of Institute of Environmental Engineering and Committee of Environmental Engineering of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.708
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.835

CiteScore 2017: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.371
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.737

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 200 200 52
PDF Downloads 170 170 50