Low-temperature pyrolysis of oily sludge: roles of Fe/Al-pillared bentonites

Open access

Abstract

Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of oily sludge for oil recovery, and the addition of a catalyst is expected to affect its pyrolysis behavior. In the present study, Fe/Al-pillared bentonite with various Fe/Al ratios as pyrolysis catalyst is prepared and characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, and NH3-TPD. The integration of Al and Fe in the bentonite interlayers to form pillared clay is evidenced by increase in the basal spacing. As a result, a critical ratio of Fe/Al exists in the Fe/Al-pillared bentonite catalytic pyrolysis for oil recovery from the sludge. The oil yield increases with respect to increase in Fe/Al ratio of catalysts, then decreases with further increasing of Fe/Al ratio. The optimum oil yield using 2.0 wt% of Fe/Al 0.5-pillared bentonite as catalyst attains to 52.46% compared to 29.23% without catalyst addition in the present study. In addition, the addition of Fe/Al-pillared bentonite catalyst also improves the quality of pyrolysis-produced oil and promotes the formation of CH4. Fe/Al-pillared bentonite provides acid center in the inner surface, which is beneficial to the cracking reaction of oil molecules in pyrolysis process. The present work implies that Fe/Al-pillared bentonite as addictive holds great potential in industrial pyrolysis of oily sludge.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Albright L.F. Crynes B.L. & Corcora W.H. (1983). Pyrolysis: Theory and Industrial Practice Academic Press New York Ny. (https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6355324(02.06.2017)).

  • Almon W. & Johns W. (1977). Petroleum forming reactions: the mechanism and rate of clay catalyzed fatty acid decarboxylation Enadimsa: Madrid pp. 157–172.

  • Baik O.D. & Mittal G.S. (2002). Heat transfer coefficients during deep-fat frying of a tofu disc Transactions of the ASAE 45 pp. 1493–1538.

  • Beis H. Onay O. & Kockar O.M. (2002). Fixed-bed pyrolysis of safflower seed: influence of pyrolysis parameters on product yields and compositions Renew Energy 26(1) pp. 21–32.

  • Berend I. Cases J.M. Francois M. Uriot J.P. & Michot L. (1995). Mechanism of adsorption and desorption of water vapor by homoionic montmorillonites; 2 The Li (super+) Na (super+) K (super+) Rb (super+) and Cs (super+)-exchanged forms Clays and Clay Minerals 43 pp. 324–336.

  • Bridgwater A. Meier D. & Radlein D. (1999). An overview of fast pyrolysis of biomass Organic Geochemistry 30 pp. 1479–1493.

  • Chen K. Wang G.H. Li W.B. Wan D. Hu Q. Lu L.L. Wei X.B. & Cheng Z.Z. (2015). Synthesis of magnetically modified Fe-Al pillared bentonite and heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation of Orange II Journal of Wuhan University of Technology-Mater. Sci. Ed. 30(2) pp. 302–306.

  • Chiaramonti D. Oasmaa A. & Solantausta Y. (2007). Power generation using fast pyrolysis liquids from biomass Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 11 pp. 1056–1086.

  • Ciajolo A. & Barbella R. (1984). Pyrolysis and oxidation of heavy fuel oils and their fractions in a thermogravimetric apparatus Fuel 63 pp. 657–661.

  • Czernik S. & Bridgwater A. V. (2004). Overview of applications of biomass fast pyrolysis oil Fuel 18 pp. 590–598.

  • Da Silva L.J. Alves F.C. & Francfia F.P. (2012). A review of the technological solutions for the treatment of oily sludges from petroleum refineries Waste Management & Research 30 (10) pp. 1–15.

  • European Commission DG Environment-B/2 Disposal and recycling routes for sewage sludge scientific and technical sub-component report 23/10/2001.

  • Fakhru’l-Razi A. Pendashteh A. Abdullah L.C. Biak D.R.A. Madaeni S.S. & Abidin Z.Z. (2009). Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment Journal of Hazardous Materials 170 pp. 530–551.

  • Ge Z.G. Li D.Y. & Pinnavaia T.J. (1994). Preparation of alumina-pillared montmorillonites with high thermal stability regular microporosity and Lewis/Brönsted acidity Microporous Materials 3 pp. 165–175.

  • Kandiyoti R. Herod A.A. & Bartle K.D. (2006). Solid fuels and heavy hydrocarbon liquids: Thermal characterization and analysis Elsevier: London ISBN: 978008044864.

  • Kök M.V. & Karacan O. (1998). Pyrolysis analysis and kinetics of crude oils Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 52 pp. 781–788.

  • Li C.T. Lee W.J. Mi H.H. & Su C.C. (1995). PAH emission from the incineration of waste oily sludge and PE plastic mixtures Science of the Total Environment 170 pp. 171–183.

  • Liu J.G. Jiang X.M. Zhou L.S. & Han X.X. (2009). Pyrolysis treatment of oil sludge and model-free kinetics analysis Journal of Hazardous Materials 161 pp. 1208–1215.

  • Maksimova N.I. & Krivoruchko O.P. (1999). Study of thermocatalytic decomposition of polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol in the presence of an unsteady-state Fe-containing catalyst Chemical Engineering Science 54 (20) pp. 4351–4357.

  • Mater L. Sperb R.M. Madureira L. Rosin A. & Correa A. (2006). Proposal of a sequential treatment methodology for the safe reuse of oil sludge-contaminated soil Journal of Hazardous Materials 136 pp. 967–971.

  • Pánek P. & Kostura B. (2014). Pyrolysis of oil sludge with calcium-containing additive Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis 108 pp. 274–283.

  • Saha B. Maiti A.K. & Ghoshal A.K. (2006). Model-free method for isothermal and non-isothermal decomposition kinetics analysis of PET sample Thermochimica Acta 444 pp. 46–52.

  • Shen L. & Zhang D.K. (2002). An experimental study of oil recovery from sewage sludge by low-temperature pyrolysis in a fluidised-bed Fuel 82 pp. 465–472.

  • Shen L. & Zhang D.K. (2005). Low-temperature pyrolysis of sewage sludge and putrescible garbage for fuel oil production Fuel 84 pp. 809–815.

  • Shie J.L. Chang C.Y. Lin J.P. Wu C.H. & Lee D.J. (2000). Resources recovery of oil sludge by pyrolysis: kinetics study Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 75 pp. 443–450.

  • Shie J.L. Chang C.Y. & Lin J.P. (2000). Major Products obtained from the pyrolysis of oil sludge Energy & Fuels 14 pp. 1176–1183

  • Shie J.L. Lin J.P. Chang C.Y. Lee D.J. & Wu C.H. (2003). Pyrolysis of oil sludge with additives of sodium and potassium compounds Resources Conservation & Recycling 39 pp. 51–64.

  • Shie J.L. Chang C.Y. Lee D.J. & W u C.H. (2002). Use of inexpensive additives in pyrolysis of oil sludge Energy & Fuels 16 pp. 102–108.

  • Shie J.L. Lin J.P. Chang C.Y. Lee D.J. & Wu C.H. (2002). Use of calcium compounds as additives for oil sludge pyrolysis Journal of the Chinese Institute of Environmental Engerineering (Taiwan) 12(4) pp. 363–371.

  • Shie J.L. Lin J.P. Chang C.Y. Shih S.M. Lee D.J. & Wu C.H. (2004). Pyrolysis of oil sludge with additives of catalytic wastes Journal of Analytical & Applied Pyrolysis 71 pp. 695–707.

  • Sing K.S.W. Everett D.H. Haul R.A.W. Moscou L. & Pierotti R.A. (1958). Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid systems with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity Pure & Applied Chemistry 57 pp. 603–619.

  • Tamer K. Jale Y.K. Mithat Y. & Henning B. (2006). Characterisation of products from pyrolysis of waste sludges Fuel 85 pp. 1498–1508.

  • Tyagi B. Chudasama C.D. & Jasra R.V. (2006). Characterization of surface acidity of an acid montmorillonite activated with hydrothermal ultrasonic and microwave techniques Applied Clay Science 31 pp. 16–28.

  • Ubani O. Atagana H.I. Thantsha M.S. & Rasheed A. (2016). Identification and characterisation of oil sludge degrading bacteria isolated from compost Archives of Environmental Protection 42(2) pp. 67–77.

  • Wang Z.Q. Guo Q.J. & Liu X. (2007). Low temperature pyrolysis characteristics of oil sludge under various heating conditions Energy Fuels 21 pp. 957–962.

  • Wang Z.Q. Guo Q.G. Liu X.M. & Cao C.Q. (2007). Low Temperature pyrolysis characteristics of oil sludge under various heating conditions Energy & Fuels 21 pp. 957–962.

  • Wei Z.B Michael Moldowan J. Dahl J. Goldstein T.P. & Jarvie D.M. (2006). The catalytic effects of minerals on the formation of diamondoids from kerogen macromolecules Organic Geochemistry 37(11) pp. 1421–1436.

  • Werle S. (2012). Possibility of NOx emission reduction from combustion process using sewage sludge gasification gas as an additional fuel Archives of Environmental Protection 38(3) pp. 81–89.

  • Wiśniewski D. Gołaszewski J. & Białowiec A. (2015). The pyrolysis and gasification of digestate from agricultural biogas plant Archives of Environmental Protection 41(3) pp. 70–75.

  • Yan P. Lu M. Yang Q. Zhang H.L. Zhang Z.Z. & Chen R. (2012). Oil recovery from refinery oily sludge using a rhamnolipid biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas Bioresource Technology 116 pp. 24–28.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.708
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.835

CiteScore 2018: 1.71

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.489
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.011

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 303 186 6
PDF Downloads 162 119 5