Optimization of fresh palm oil mill effluent biodegradation with Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens

Open access

Abstract

In this work, response surface optimization strategy was employed to enhance the biodegradation process of fresh palm oil mill effluent (POME) by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens. A central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) were employed to study the effects of three independent variables: inoculum size (%), agitation rate (rpm) and temperature (°C) on the biodegradation processes and production of biosolids enriched with fungal biomass protein. The results achieved using A. niger were compared to those obtained using T. virens. The optimal conditions for the biodegradation processes in terms of total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and production of biosolids enriched with fungal biomass protein in fresh POME treated with A. niger and T. virens have been predicted by multiple response optimization and verified experimentally at 19% (v/v) inoculum size, 100 rpm, 30.2°C and 5% (v/v) inoculum size, 100 rpm, 33.3°C respectively. As disclosed by ANOVA and response surface plots, the effects of inoculum size and agitation rate on fresh POME treatment process by both fungal strains were significant.

Ahmad, A., Ghufran, R. & Wahid, Z.A. (2011). Role of calcium oxide in sludge granulation and methanogenesis for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent using UASB reactor, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 198, pp. 40–48.

Alam, M.A. & Fakhru’l-Razi, A. (2003). Enhanced settleability and dewaterability of fungal treated domestic wastewater sludge by liquid state bioconversion process, Water Research, 37, pp. 1118–1124.

Alam, M.Z., A. Muyibi, S. & Torama, J. (2007). Statistical optimization of adsorption processes for removal of 2, 4-dichlorophenol by activated carbon derived from oil palm empty fruit bunches, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 19, pp. 674–677.

Bhatia, S., Othman, Z. & Ahmad, A.L. (2007). Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent using Moringa Oleifera seeds as natural coagulant, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 145, pp. 120–126.

Chan, Y.J., Chong, M.F. & Law, C.L. (2012). An integrated anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor (IAAB) for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME): Start-up and steady state performance, Process Biochemistry, 47, pp. 485–495.

Fadzilah, K. & Mashitah, M.D. (2010). Cellulase production in palm oil mill effluent: Effect of aeration and agitation, Journal of Applied Sciences, 10 (24), pp. 3307–3312.

Fakhru’l-Razi, A. & Molla, A.H. (2007). Enhancement of bioseparation and dewaterability of domestic wastewater sludge by fungal treated dewatered sludge, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147, pp. 350–356.

Jin, B., van Leuween, H.J., Patel, B. & Yu, Q. (1998). Utilisation of starch processing wastewater for production of microbial biomass protein and fungal α-amylase by Aspergillus oryzae, Bioresource Technology, 66, pp. 201–206.

Lee, Y., Kim, H., Gao, W., Chung, C. & Lee, J. (2012). Statistical optimization for production of carboxymethylcellulase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens DL-3 by a recombinant Escherichia coli JM109/DL-3 from rice bran using response surface method, Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 17, pp. 227–235.

Liu, T., Hu, H., He, Z. & Ni, Y. (2011). Treatment of poplar alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP) effluent with Aspergillus niger, Bioresource Technolology, 102, pp. 7361–7365.

Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L. & Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193, pp. 265–275.

Mannan, S., Fakhru’l-Razi, A. & Alam, M.A. (2005). Use of fungi to improve bioconversion of activated sludge, Water Research, 39, pp. 2935–2943.

Moore, D. & Chiu, S. W. (2001). Fungal products as food, in: Bio-Exploitation of Filamentous Fungi, Pointing, S.B. & Hyde, K.D. (Eds.), Fungal Diversity Press, Hong Kong, 2001, pp. 223–251.

Petre, M., Peng, M.X. & Mao, L.X. (2010). The influence of culture conditions on fungal pellet formation by submerged fermentation of Cordyceps Synensis. Proceeding of Fifth International Conference of Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products, pp. 99–104.

Sepehr, M.N., Nasseri, S., Mazaheri Assadi, M. & Yaghmaian, K. (2005). Chromium bioremoval from tannery industries effluent by Aspergillus Oryzae, Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 2(4), pp. 273–279.

Lim, S.L., Wu, T.Y., & Clarke, C. (2014). Treatment and biotransformation of highly polluted agro-industrial wastewater from a palm oil mill into vermicompost using earthworms, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62, pp. 691–698.

Teng, T.T., Wong, Y.-S., Ong, S.-A., Norhashimah, M. & Rafatullah, M. (2013). Start-up operation of anaerobic degradation process for palm oil mill effluent in anaerobic bench scale reactor (ABSR), Procedia Environmental Sciences, 18, pp. 442–450.

Truong, Q.T, Miyata, N. & Iwahori, K. (2004). Growth of Aspergillus oryzae during treatment of cassava starch processing wastewater with high content of suspended solids, Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 97 (5), 329–335

Vijayaraghavan, K., Ahmad, D. & Abdul Aziz, M.E. (2007). Aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent, Journal of Environmental Management, 82, pp. 24–31.

Wang, Y.X. & Lu, Z.X. (2005). Optimization of processing parameters for the mycelial growth and extracellular polysaccharide production by Boletus spp. 50328, Process Biochemistry, 40, pp. 1043–1051.

Wu, T.Y., Mohammad, A.W., Jahim, J.M. & Anuar, N. (2010). Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes, Journal of Environmental Management, 91, pp. 1467–1490.

Yesilada, O., Sik, S. & Sam, M. (1998). Biodegradation of olive oil mill wastewater by Coriolus versicolor and Funalia trogii: effects of agitation, initial COD concentration, inoculum size and immobilization, World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 14, pp. 37–42.

Zhang, Y., Yan, L., Chi, L., Long, X., Mei, Z. & Zhang, Z. (2008a). Startup and operation of anaerobic EGSB reactor treating palm oil mill effluent, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20, pp. 658–663.

Zhang, Z.Y., Jin, B., Bai, Z.H. & Wang, X.Y. (2008b). Production of fungal biomass protein using microfungi from winery wastewater treatment, Bioresource Technology, 99, pp. 3871–3876.

Archives of Environmental Protection

The Journal of Institute of Environmental Engineering and Committee of Environmental Engineering of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.708
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.835

CiteScore 2017: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.371
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.737

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 277 234 12
PDF Downloads 117 95 6