The evaluation and determination of heavy metals pollution in edible vegetables, water and soil in the south of Tehran province by GIS

Open access


In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray). The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg). In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS) were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.

[1] Amin, N., Hussain, A., Alamzeb, S. & Begum, S. (2013). Accumulation of heavy metals in edible parts of vegetables irrigated with waste water and their daily intake to adults and children, District Mardan, Pakistan, Food Chemistry, 136, pp. 1515-1523.

[2] Abbas, M., Parveen, Z., Iqbal, M., Iqbal, S., Ahmed, M. & Bhutto, R. (2010). Monitoring of toxic metals (cadmium, lead, arsenic and mercury) in vegetables of Sindh, Pakistan, Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 6, pp. 60-65.

[3] Asdeo, A. & Loonker, S. (2011). A comparative analysis of trace metals in vegetables, Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 5, pp. 125-132.

[4] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Interaction profile for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2010).

[5] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Toxicological profile for Nickel, U.S. Department of Health, Atlanta, GA, (2005).

[6] Aurilio, A., Mason, R. & Hemond, H. (1994). Speciation and fate of arsenic in three lakes of the Aberjona watershed, Environmental Science & Technology, 28, pp. 577-585.

[7] American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), U.S Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, 2011.

[8] Cao, H., Chen, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, H., Qiao, L. & Men, Y. (2010). Heavy metals in rice and garden vegetables and their potential health risks to inhabitants in the vicinity of an industrial zone in Jiangsu, China, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 22, pp. 1792-1799.

[9] Ciesielczuk, T., Rosik-Dulewska, C. & Kochanowska, K. (2014). The influence of biomass ash on the migration of heavy metals in the flooded soil profile, Archives of Environmental Protection, 40, pp. 3-15.

[10] Cheraghi, M., Lorestani, B. & Yousefi, N. (2009). Effect of waste water on heavy metal accumulation in Hamedan Province vegetables, International Journal of Botany, 5, pp. 190-193.

[11] Chakraborti, D., Rahman, M., Paul, K., Chowdhury, U., Sengupta, M., Lodh, D., Chanda, C., Saha, K. & Mukherjee, S. (2002). Arsenic calamity in the Indian subcontinent, Talanta, 58, pp. 3-22.

[12] Edem, C., Dosunmu, M. & Bassey, F. (2009). Distribution of heavy metals in leaves, stems and roots of fluted Pumpkin (Telferia occidentatis), Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8, pp. 222-224.

[13] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), (2010). Designation of Hazardous Substances, 40 CFR 302.4, Washington DC.

[14] Foo, S. & Tan, T. (1998). Elements in the hair of South-east Asian islanders, Science of The Total Environment, 209, pp. 185-192.

[15] Gharib, A., Fatoorechian, S. & Ahmadiniar, A. (2003). Determination of essential major and trace elements in daily diets by comparative methodologies and alterations, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 4, pp. 21-32.

[16] Helgesen, H. & Larsen, E. (1998). Bioavailability and speciation of arsenic in carrots grown in contaminated soil, Analyst, 123, pp. 791-796.

[17] Itanna, F. (2002). Metals in leafy vegetables grown in Addis Ababa and toxicological implications, The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, 16, pp. 295-302.

[18] Jonczak, J. & Parzych, A. (2014). The content of heavy metals in the soil and litterfall an a beech-pine-spruce stand in northern Poland, Archives of Environmental Protection, 40, pp. 67-77.

[19] Jarup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination, British Medical Bulletin, 68, pp. 167-182.

[20] Jiang, H., Qin, Y. & Hu, B. (2008). Dispersive phase microextraction (DLPME) combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for determination of trace Co and Ni in environmental water and rice samples, Talanta, 74, pp. 1160-1165.

[21] Jawad, I. (2010). The level of heavy metals in selected vegetables crops collected from Baghdad city markets, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9, pp. 683-685.

[22] Jonge, C. & Swami, K. (2010). ICP-MS determination of lead isotope ratios in legal and counterfeit cigarette tobacco samples, Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 46, pp. 484-494.

[23] Karanja, N., Njenga, M., Prain, G., Kanethe, E. & Kironchi, G. (2010). Assessment of environmental and public health hazards in waste water used for urban agriculture in Nairobi, Kenya, Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 12, pp. 85-97.

[24] Langmuir, D., Chrostowski, P., Chaney, B.U.R. & Vigneault, S. (2004). Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Chemistry of Metals.

[25] Maleki, A. & Zarasvand, M. (2010). Heavy metals in selected edible vegetables and estimation of their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran, Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 39, pp. 335-340.

[26] Manzoori, J. & Bavali-Tabrizi, A. (2003). Cloud point preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cobalt and nickel in water samples, Microchimica Acta, 141, pp. 201-207.

[27] Mizuguchi, H., Ishida, M., Takahashi, T. & Sasaki, A. (2011). Ultra-trace determination of lead(ii) in water using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after preconcentration by solid-phase extraction to a small piece of cellulose acetate type membrane filter, Analytical Sciences, 27, pp. 85-87.

[28] Mohammadi, Z., Shamspur, T., Karimi, A. & Naroui, E. (2012). Preconcentration of trace amounts of Pb(ii) ions without any chelating agent by using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles prior to ETAAS determination, Scientific World Journal, Article ID 640437, pp. 1-6.

[29] National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Atlanta Centers for Disease Control (ACDC) (2010) GA 30333.

[30] Pandey, J., Shubhashish, K., Pandey, R., Kanethe, E. & Kironchi, G. (2010). Heavy metal contamination of Ganga River at Varanasi in relation to atmospheric deposition, Journal of Tropical Ecology, 51, pp. 365-373.

[31] Rehder, D. (2003). Biological and medicinal aspects of vanadium, Inorganic Chemistry Communications, 6, pp. 604-617.

[32] Safavi, A., Abdollahi, H., Hormozi Nezhad, M. & Kamali, R. (2004). Cloud point extraction, precocentration and simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of nickel and cobalt in water samples, Spectrochimica Acta Part B, 60, pp. 2897-2901.

[33] Safavi, A., Iranpoor, N., Saghir, N. & Momeni, S. (2006). Glycerol-silica gel: a new solid sorbent for preconcentration and determination of traces of cobalt(II) ion, Analytica Chimica Acta, 569, pp. 139-144.

[34] Smith, A., Goycolea, M., Haque, R. & Biggs, M. (1998). Marked increase in bladder and lung cancer mortality in a region of northern Chile due to arsenic in drinking water, American Journal of Epidemiology, 147, pp. 660-669.

[35] Sharma, R., Agrawal, M. & Marshal, F. (2009). Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, pp. 583-591.

[36] Skoog, D., Holler, F. & Crouch, S. (2002). Principles of instrumental analysis, Thomson Brooks Cole, New York 2002.

[37] Tsuda, T., Babazono, A., Ogawa, T., Hamad, H., Mino, Y., Aoyama, H., Kuramatani, N., Nagira, T., Harada, M. & Inomata, S. (1992). Inorganic arsenic: A dangerous enigma for mankind, Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 6, pp. 309-322.

[38] Tondel, M., Rahman, M., Magnuson, A., Chowdhury, I., Faruquee, M. & Ahamad, S. (1999). The relationship of arsenic levels in drinking water and the prevalence rate of skin lesions in Bangladesh, Environmental Health Perspectives, 107, pp. 727-729.

[39] Tang, C., Li. A., Huang, H., Cheng, X., Gao, Y., Chen, H., Huang, Q., Luo, Y., Xue, Y., Zuo, Q. & Cui, L. (2012). Effects of lead pollution in SY River on children’s intelligence, Life Sciences, 9, pp. 458-464.

[40] Uchida, S., Tagami, K. & Hirai, I. (2007). Soil-to-plant transfer factors of stable elements and naturally occurring radionuclids upland field groups collected in Japan, Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 44, pp. 628-640.

[41] Vela, N., Heitkemper, D. & Stewart, K. (2001). Arsenic extraction and speciation in carrots using accelerated solvent extraction, liquid chromatography and plasma mass spectrometry, Analyst, 126, pp. 1011-1017.

[42] Vela, N. & Heitkemper, D. (2004). Total arsenic determination and speciation in infant food products by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, Journal of AOAC International, 87, pp. 244-252.

[43] Vinogradov, A. (1959). The geochemistry of rare and dispersed chemical elements in soil, Consultants Bureau, New York 1959.

Archives of Environmental Protection

The Journal of Institute of Environmental Engineering and Committee of Environmental Engineering of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2016: 0.708
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.835

CiteScore 2017: 1.01

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.371
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.737

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 375 375 26
PDF Downloads 207 207 20